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H.R.5268 - Improvements in Global Maternal and newborn health Outcomes while Maximizing Successes Act
To provide assistance to improve maternal and newborn health in developing countries, and for other purposes.
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Mrs. CAPPS (for herself, Ms. MCCOLLUM, Mrs. CHRISTENSEN, Ms. WOOLSEY, Mrs. MALONEY, Ms. MOORE of Wisconsin, Ms. DELAURO, Ms. CLARKE, Ms. LEE of California, Ms. WASSERMAN SCHULTZ, Mr. LOEBSACK, Mr. GRIJALVA, Ms. SCHAKOWSKY, Ms. SHEA-PORTER, Ms. NORTON, Mrs. DAVIS of California, Mr. CONYERS, and Ms. MATSUI) introduced the following bill; which was referred to the Committee on Foreign AffairsCommentsClose CommentsPermalink
SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.
SEC. 2. FINDINGS AND PURPOSES.
(1) In 2000, the United States joined 188 other countries in supporting 8 United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), including MDG 5, to reduce the maternal mortality ratio by three-quarters by 2015. In 2005, universal access to reproductive health was added as a target for MDG 5.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
(2) On January 15, 2009, United States Permanent Representative to the United Nations Susan Rice stated before the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate that President Barack Obama is committed to ‘making the Millennium Development Goals America’s goals.’.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
(3) With thousands of avoidable maternal deaths still occurring, the United States will need to immediately scale up its funding and delivery of proven low-cost, lifesaving interventions in order to fulfill its commitment to help ensure that MDG 5 is met.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
(4) Substantial progress in maternal health has been made in some countries and regions: Egypt, Honduras, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, and parts of Bangladesh have all halved their maternal mortality ratios over the past few decades.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
(6) An estimated 8,800,000 children under the age of 5 die each year. Over 40 percent of these die in the first month of life. And mortality rates are increasing for those born to young mothers or where pregnancies are less than a year apart.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
(7) Hundreds of thousands of women die each year from causes related to pregnancy and childbirth. Ninety-nine percent of these deaths occur in the developing world and the vast majority are preventable.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
(8) In sub-Saharan Africa, a woman’s lifetime risk of maternal death is a staggering 1 in 22, compared with 1 in 4,800 in the United States, according to the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF).CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
(10) For every maternal death, approximately 20 women--or 10,000,000 women per year--suffer complications with severe consequences, including pregnancy-related injuries such as fistula, uterine prolapse, infections, diseases, and disabilities.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
(11) The number one cause of maternal deaths is hemorrhage. Other primary causes of maternal death include sepsis, unsafe abortion, hypertensive disorder, and prolonged or obstructed labor.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
(12) Violent acts against pregnant women can lead to poor health outcomes, including preterm labor, preterm delivery, miscarriage, and stillbirths, and even maternal deaths, and the risk for maternal mortality is 3 times as high for abused mothers.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
(13) The spacing of births has a powerful impact on a child’s chances of survival. Children born less than 2 years after the previous birth are about 2.5 times more likely to die before age 5 than children born 3 to 5 years after the previous birth.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
(14) Pregnancy is the leading cause of death for young women aged 15 to 19 worldwide. Compared to girls in their twenties, girls aged 15 to 19 are twice as likely, and girls under 15 five times as likely, to die in childbirth, and mortality and morbidity rates are also higher among infants born to young mothers.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
(15) Globally, 215,000,000 women would like to delay or end childbearing, but do not have access to modern contraceptives. Fully addressing this need would prevent an additional 53,000,000 unintended pregnancies each year and reduce maternal deaths due to unsafe abortion by 82 percent.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
(16) If family planning and maternal and newborn services were provided simultaneously, the costs of these services would decline by $1,500,000,000 compared with investing in maternal and newborn care alone--this dual investment would result in a 70 percent decline in maternal deaths and 44 percent decline in newborn deaths.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
(17) Maternal death rates are inextricably tied to neonatal survival, with the risk of death doubling for newborns in some countries in the developing world following maternal death.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
(18) In many developing countries, including fragile states and countries affected by conflict, lack of access to quality health care facilities, health services, and trained providers results in deaths for mothers, newborns, and children--the majority of births in Africa take place without a skilled attendant present, increasing the risk of death or disability for both mother and newborn.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
(19) The experiences of United States Government-supported and nongovernmental organization maternal and child health programs in countries such as Nepal, Ethiopia, and Senegal have demonstrated that community-based approaches, linked to primary and referral care when possible, can deliver high-impact interventions to prevent or treat many of the life-threatening conditions affecting mothers, newborns, and children under the age of 5.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
(20) More than half of all children and pregnant women in developing countries suffer from anemia, which is exacerbated by malaria, neglected tropical diseases, and nutritional deficits, causing adverse pregnancy outcomes and even death.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
(21) According to WHO, women that have undergone female genital mutilation are significantly more likely than those who have not undergone female genital mutilation to experience serious postpartum health problems, and children born to mothers who have undergone female genital mutilation face higher death rates immediately after birth.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
(22) According to the Director of National Intelligence’s 2009 Annual Threat Assessment, widespread poor maternal and child health and malnutrition has the potential to weaken central governments and empower non-state actors, including terrorist and paramilitary groups.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
(23) The United States Agency for International Development has estimated the economic impact of maternal and newborn mortality to be a global loss of over $15,000,000,000 due to diminished productivity.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
SEC. 3. ASSISTANCE TO IMPROVE MATERNAL AND NEWBORN HEALTH IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES.
‘SEC. 104D. ASSISTANCE TO REDUCE MORTALITY AND IMPROVE MATERNAL AND NEWBORN HEALTH.
‘(a) Authorization- Consistent with section 104(c), the President is authorized to furnish assistance, on such terms and conditions as the President may determine, to reduce mortality and improve maternal health and the health of newborns in developing countries.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(A) comprehensive voluntary family planning services, integrated into antenatal and postnatal care and in child health services, to support women and men in making informed decisions and having timely, intended, well-spaced pregnancies and to help women with preexisting conditions avoid high-risk, unintended pregnancies;CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(v) diagnosis and treatment of existing conditions, such as HIV/AIDS, syphilis, malaria, and tuberculosis, and ensuring that women are provided with, or referred to, appropriate care and treatment for those conditions;CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(vi) ensuring that women infected with HIV are provided mother-to-child transmission prevention services, including access to voluntary family planning, medications to prevent such transmission, and counseling on infant feeding; andCommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(i) the presence of an accredited health professional, such as midwife, doctor, or nurse, who has been educated and trained to proficiency in the skills needed to manage normal or uncomplicated pregnancies, childbirth, and the immediate postnatal period, and in the identification, management, or referral of complications in women and newborns, including active management of the third stage of labor; andCommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(ii) an enabling environment that includes access to a referral system, communication and transport, drugs and supplies, and equipment appropriate for a normal delivery;CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(2) working with communities and health care providers to identify and remove barriers to maternal health care services, including barriers such as financial, sociocultural, transportation, gender discrimination, and stigma based on preexisting health concerns, and ensure that those services are based in individual human rights, as recognized by international agreements and instruments;CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(3) comprehensive sexuality education programs and services for youth that provide adolescents with information, skills, and materials necessary to postpone childbearing;CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(4) promotion of activities that focus on empowering women and girls and engaging men and boys at the individual, household, and community levels to improve the health outcomes of women, newborns, and children including education and awareness programs about gender-based violence, the health risks of female genital mutilation, and shared responsibility for and benefits of family planning;CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(5) activities to improve essential newborn care and treatment, including educating families and communities about proper antenatal and skilled delivery care, tetanus toxoid immunization during pregnancy, immediate and exclusive breastfeeding, keeping the newborn warm, such as by providing skin-to-skin care, keeping the cord clean, resuscitation of newborns who are not breathing properly, and treatment of infections;CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(6) activities to prevent and treat childhood illness, including early infant diagnosis of HIV infection and increasing access to appropriate prevention and treatment for diarrhea, pneumonia, malaria, HIV/AIDS, and other life-threatening childhood illnesses;CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(7) activities to improve child and maternal nutrition, including the delivery of iron, zinc, vitamin A, iodine, and other key micronutrients, the promotion of breastfeeding and appropriate complementary feeding, and the utilization of Ready to Use Therapeutic Foods (RUTF) that, to the extent practicable, are developed, purchased, or produced in the country or region that they are utilized;CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(8) activities to strengthen the delivery of immunization services, including efforts to strengthen routine immunization, introduce new vaccines for diseases such as rotavirus and pneuomcoccal disease, and eliminate polio;CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(9) activities to improve household-level behavior related to safe water, hygiene, safe and hygienic food preparation and storage, exposure to indoor smoke, and environmental toxins such as lead;CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(10) activities to improve capacity for health governance, health finance, and the health workforce, including in the private sector, and support for training clinicians, nurses, technicians, sanitation and public health workers, community-based health workers, midwives, birth attendants, peer educators, volunteers, and private sector enterprises to provide integrated health services and referrals that meet the needs of patients across a continuum of care;CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(12) activities to establish and support management of host country institutions’ information systems and the development and use of tools and models to collect, analyze, and disseminate information related to maternal and newborn health;CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(13) activities to develop and conduct needs assessments, baseline studies, targeted evaluations, or other information-gathering efforts for the design, monitoring, and evaluation of maternal and newborn health efforts, including--CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(B) collection, evaluation, and use of data on the medical and socioeconomic factors that led to a maternal or newborn death or ‘near miss’ at the community and health facility levels; andCommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(17) activities to train health care providers to prevent, identify, and manage cases of gender-based violence as part of family planning and maternal and newborn health services;CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(19) activities to improve access to clean water and improved sanitation through community-based hygiene education programs, access to household- and community-level water purification tools and devices, and latrine construction; andCommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(1) carried out through private and voluntary organizations, including community and faith-based organizations, and relevant international and multilateral organizations, including the United Nations Population Fund, the United Nations Children’s Fund, and the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunizations, that demonstrate effectiveness and commitment to improving the health and rights of mothers, newborns, and children;CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(2) carried out in the context of country-driven plans in whose development the United States Government participates along with other donors and multilateral organizations, nongovernmental organizations, and civil society;CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(d) Annual Report- Not later than January 31, 2011, and annually thereafter for 4 years, the President shall transmit to Congress a report on the implementation of this section for the prior fiscal year.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
SEC. 4. DEVELOPMENT OF STRATEGY TO REDUCE MORTALITY AND IMPROVE MATERNAL AND NEWBORN HEALTH IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES.
(a) Development of Strategy- The President shall develop and implement a comprehensive strategy as part of the Global Health Initiative to reduce mortality and improve the health of mothers and newborns in developing countries.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
(1) An identification of not less than 30 countries, including fragile states and countries affected by conflict, with priority needs for the 5-year period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act based on--CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
(D) a description of how United States assistance complements and leverages efforts by other donors and builds capacity and self-sufficiency among recipient countries; andCommentsClose CommentsPermalink
(3) Enhanced coordination among relevant departments and agencies of the United States Government engaged in activities to improve the health and well-being of mothers and newborns in developing countries.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
(c) Report- Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the President shall transmit to Congress a report that contains the strategy described in this section.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
SEC. 5. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.
(a) In General- There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this Act, and the amendments made by this Act, such sums as may be necessary for each of fiscal years 2011 through 2015.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink