H.R.6867 - Unemployment Compensation Extension Act of 2008

To provide for additional emergency unemployment compensation. view all titles (6)

All Bill Titles

  • Official: To provide for additional emergency unemployment compensation. as introduced.
  • Popular: Unemployment Compensation Extension Act of 2008 as introduced.
  • Short: Unemployment Compensation Extension Act of 2008 as introduced.
  • Short: Unemployment Compensation Extension Act of 2008 as passed house.
  • Short: Unemployment Compensation Extension Act of 2008 as passed senate.
  • Short: Unemployment Compensation Extension Act of 2008 as enacted.

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  • gramps 09/15/2008 8:41am
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    + -1

    What’s a “winer”?

  • Anonymous 09/15/2008 8:56am
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    + -1

    I’ve tried to follow along and read this, but I’m getting more confused the more I read.

    What, exactly, will this bill do?

    We got the 13 week extension in early August. Is this an additional 7, 13 or 20 weeks on top of that? And, someone mentioned a $50 cap. What is that?

    My wife has been out of work since May of 2007. Her benefits expired. Her extension is about to. It’s been on me for, what seems like forever.

    What would this bill provide? We live in New Jersey. She’s applied everywhere, and even was told she had a job only to be called and told that the position was filled by a ‘family member’ instead.

    Any help is appreciated as I’m lost and can’t spend a ton of time researching from work for fear that, I too may be among the ranks of the unemployed if I spend too much time on non-work related tasks.

    Thanks!

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  • Anonymous 09/15/2008 8:57am
    Link Reply
    + -4

    GRAMPS ARE YOUE HARD OF HEARIN TOO!!!

    NUCKLE HEAD

  • Anonymous 09/15/2008 8:58am

    Societies about the world are faced with an unprecedented crisis. We are rushing headlong into a perfect storm with only the vaguest idea how to change course. We seem to be impaled on the horns of a practical dilemma. We perpetuate the high-consumption lifestyles of the previous century at our peril.

    Yet neither, we are told, can we simply choose to abandon these lifestyles, since this would threaten the prosperity and stability of our economies and throw us into a recession from which, in light of our situation, we may never emerge.

    What is to be done? When one cannot move forward or back, the only option is to step off the path. We must take a lateral step into another way of thinking and being.

    Most people today see the crisis for what it is and heed the challenges it presents. What we have yet to discover, appropriate and realize are the new opportunities, latent in this situation, which could make this crisis a remarkable, transformative moment in the history of our species. Our challenge today is see these opportunities and to make them our own. The end of the world is, potentially, the beginning of a new one.

    Alexis was in love with life. Fresh out of art school in Fremantle, Australia, she’d picked up a scholarship to study photography under a famous Parisian photographer. Her mother had urged caution, but Alexis persisted – and thank goodness! The course – and Paris itself – was everything that she’d hoped. Her French sponsor found her an apartment in the Latin Quarter, just a stone’s throw from the Place Saint-Michel. Alexis would stroll along the Seine in the evening, up the Champs Elysées to take pictures of the Arc de Triomphe in the flurry of lights. After two months documenting daily life on the streets of Paris, she had enough material for an exhibition. Alexis felt like she was at the heart of life. Things could go anywhere from here.

    One night Alexis was speaking to an old friend in Australia. They were reminiscing about their student days, which the friend dearly missed.

    ‘Do you remember Nietzsche’s idea of the eternal return?’ the friend asked. ‘If I had to choose one time of my life to live out again and again, it would be art school days’.

    Alexis, for her part, was ambivalent about the ‘good old days’. She realized then that if there were a time in her life that she would have again and again, it would be her time in Paris, not Fremantle. The more that she reflected on this, the more her life seemed to come into focus. Looking out her window at the bustling streets, she imagined Nietzsche’s demon coming into her room and making her the offer of Eternal Return. Alexis could hear herself reply:

    ‘Yes. You are a god and I have never heard anything more divine’.

    What does it mean to live in a world of change? Heraclitus’ answer is simple. To live in a world of change is to be constantly changing.

    We both step and do not step in the same rivers. We are and are not’ My idea seems to be that no one can step into the same river twice. This is because the river is constantly changing. But surely, one might respond, a river only changes within its banks? If one accepts that a river is defined by its course, it remains the same river irrespective on how much changes goes on between its banks.

    This may be true but it misses the point. What I am saying is that, along the banks, the material substance of the river is constantly changing. If you stand on the side of the Danube, the water before you is not the same water from moment to moment. If the river is this water – the water that flows past the banks – then the Danube is not the same river from moment to moment. We step into Danube, we step out again. When we step into it again, we step into different water, and thus effectively, a different river.

    Furthermore, we step into and out of the river as different beings.

    Most interpretations of the river’s fragment focus on the idea of the river as a state of flux. But one must say more than this in the fragment: ‘We are and are not’.

    The river changes and so do you!

    People today are familiar with the principle of biological generation and corruption. We all are puzzled over this principle two thousand years before the rise of modern biological science and drew its ultimate lessons for the human condition. As material beings, we do not simply live in a world of flux – we are flux. We are growing and dying all the time, consuming light and resources to replicate our structure, while shedding matter continuously.

    The lesson is that change and death are omnipresent features of the natural world. As living beings, we are dying all the time – as Heraclitus says, ‘living our death and dying our life’.

    Don’t underestimate the desire to think and learn. You know what Parmenides said — thinking and being are the same.

    Don’t underestimate the wonder in discovering a new sentiment or passion. Do you remember the first time you fell in love?

    Don’t underestimate the value of learning a new activity, or acquiring the ability to tackle a new task. These things can transform lives.

    Don’t underestimate the human need to be and belong. To say ‘I am…’ and have that mean something… It gives meaning to life.

    What do these things have in common? They are forms of empowerment.

    No one knows what they are capable of thinking, feeling, doing, or being. The adventure of life is to find out.

    Change doesn’t need to be something that we passively endure. Through philosophical reflection, it is possible to turn our anxiety about change around. We can change the way that we experience change, such that we no longer perceive it as a battle and ordeal, but as an opportunity – an opportunity to change ourselves for the better, to explore new ways of living and being.

    We must learn to see the opportunity in change. We must learn to make the decisive shift from passivity to empowerment, from seeing change as an ordeal to seeing change as an adventure.

    True leaders know what to do with change. They see what’s empowering in it.

    Two towns sat on opposite sides of a river in the shadow of some mountains. The glaciers set into the mountains glistened in the morning sun.

    For years, traffic had passed between the towns by way of small boats. But one day, a consortium of men built a low toll-bridge across the river. It soon absorbed all the traffic from the boats. The toll was expensive, but the bridge was safer than the boats, so people used it. Before long, a continuous stream of people crossed the bridge from one town to the other. The consortium of men became rich, the economies of both towns expanded, and everyone was happier as a result.

    For a while it seemed the good life would go on forever. Then the glaciers began to melt. The river rose higher in its bed.

    I was a citizen of one of the towns. When I heard that the glaciers were melting, I went to the consortium of men.

    ‘Look’, I said. ‘The glaciers are melting. Soon the river will rise above the toll-bridge and no one will be able to cross the river. What will happen to the markets then? We must phase out the bridge and build a new fleet of boats to ferry traffic across the river. This is our crisis today. We must rise up like the river to meet it!’

    The rich men laughed .

    ‘Do you know how much it costs to build a fleet of boats?’ they said. ‘Where will all this money for this come from? From the taxpayer, of course! And who will want to live by the river when the taxes are so high? You talk about saving economies, but you don’t know the first thing about economics. We do. We shall stick with the toll-bridge and preserve the status quo. Who would believe that the river would rise above the bridge in any case?’

    Undefeated, I went away and built a boat. Soon he’d launched a small business ferrying people back and forth across the river.

    The sun shone and the glaciers melted and river rose higher in its bed. Before long, it was overflowing the bridge. More people were using a friend’s ferry service across the river, worried about losing stock in the water as they carted it across.

    The rich men said to themselves: ‘he was right. The river is going to overflow the bridge. We must diversify our business in order to capture other markets. We must invest in boats, not bridges – the future is in boats!’

    The rich men changed their thinking. They built a whole fleet of ferry boats. The small, reasonably priced and reliable ferry service could not compete with them. Soon the consortium had monopolized the ferry-boat system, and I was driven out of business.

    Once again, the rich men laughed at me.

    ‘You changed to boats while we stayed with bridges’, they observed. ‘Thus we became richer while you struggled to open up this new market. It was only when we no longer saw money in bridges that we shifted to boats – and now your ferry-boat system has made us richer than ever. You should have followed our example. You should have invested in bridges while the waters rose’.

    I smiled in return. ‘I have always invested in bridges’, he said. ‘While you were protecting your investments, I built a bridge to the future’.

    The 20th century was an age of ideologies. People lived and died for their beliefs about human nature and the nature of society, its destiny and future. ‘Capitalism’ and ‘communism’ were totemic code words for opposing visions of the good life.

    The 21st century is unlikely to witness the same ideological fervor. This is not because people have outgrown the need for ideas expressing the truth about human nature. It is because climate change has placed the destiny and future of our societies in question.

    Rather than a new ideology, our century needs a Stoic revivalism. Like us, the Greek and Roman Stoic’s lived in an age of crisis. The ancient city-states had yielded to war and empire. The old gods had survived, but failed to inspire a living faith. Political leaders bickered and fought without any social vision. Anxiety was the order of the day.

    Stoic philosophy was shaped by all this. In a world of constant change, the Stoics sought to develop a philosophical account of the challenges presented by change. This is what makes the Stoics relevant to us today.

    The Stoic thinker is beset by a world beyond their control. Like a sailor on a stormy sea, they must find out what is within their control, and tie themselves to that mast for the sake of their survival. Here is the crux of it: according to the Stoics, the only thing you and I have any real power to control is the way that we respond to the world, our emotional and intellectual responses.

    The Stoic philosophy-as-life hinges on cultivating the power within.

    The Stoics may have been optimistic about the extent of control that is granted by reason (significantly, they don’t have a concept of the unconscious, as we’ve had since Nietzsche and Freud). But their influence on medieval and modern thought is decisive. To cope and endure in a world of change, the inner life of reason must become a sanctum against the world, sealed off against storms and upheavals, sheltered from the blows of fate. To negotiate and even flourish in a world of change, we must become guardians of our inner world, champions of our rational tranquility.

    The Stoic rule is:

    ‘There is one thing I know I can control, and that is how I respond to events’.

    The Stoic lesson is:

    ‘To find tranquility in the midst of change, and fulfillment in relation to the challenges of fate, cultivate the power within’.

    Regarding the slow but inevitable transformation of national economies from ‘dirty’ to ‘clean’ productive systems, the level of dissemblance and denial among political leaders today is painful to watch. It is no longer possible for respectable politicians to try to deny the role of industrial societies in causing climate change. Yet neither (apparently) can responsible economic mangers (and what is a political leader today but the de facto CEO of a giant business corporation?) throw caution to the wind and restructure the economy along carbon neutral lines – at least not until it is clear that everyone else is doing the same thing (incurring the same costs and gambling on the same benefits). In the evolution of the global political debate over how to address the problem of greenhouse gas emissions, the question is not yet: ‘How are we going to change?’ It remains: ‘Who is going to change first?’

    Our situation is analogous to that of a group of castaways huddled aboard a sinking raft, which has washed against a reef surrounding a tiny atoll. A shark patrols the lagoon between the reef and the shore. The castaways know that the first of them to dive into the water and swim for shore will get eaten by the shark. The raft is sinking, and sooner or later all of them will end up in the drink, but no one wants to go first. The best strategy would be to swim for it together. But who could trust the others to dive into the water at the crucial time? Perhaps all they can do is sit tight on the sinking raft and wait for it to go down. Then they will be forced to swim for their lives.

    Is this not a fair depiction of our current situation?

    If so, we should start a conversation about how we are going to deal with it.

  • Anonymous 09/15/2008 9:01am

    I held a light out for you last night…
    As the sands of time slide through the entrances and exits of all that is sacred, seen and unseen, humanity’s future is unveiled as it is seen in a full spectrum of possibility that has not existed before this time. As each person walks forward in their life, there is a set of energetic time prints, that they announce to the world. As earth walks forward into newly formed dunes of progression it will seem and feel as if one is left completely alone. No one beside them, to hold them, to help them, to assist them or ‘sew it seams’. The energies of the Angels on high come to lift you into a place where you can not fall or falter. The restless flight ends as the angels on high escort you into a safe harbor

    Time asks you to not give up on what lives in your heart and lives in your dream. The Universe has placed within you a seed that cannot die, that cannot be sown over. The Universe has placed in you a time imprint that asks to be viewed under the microscopic eye of your heart.

    Earth herself wades through a deep level of fear, she processes as we process. Humans fear the war, the debt, lack of money and loss of control. Earth herself and all her inhabitants are at a turning point that asks everyone to be explicit in the expression of every passing thought for they all count. No more excuses for the mistaken choices of those in power as they look for ways to polish their own metals.

    As of this summertime, higher echelons of light will be integrated into the soul patterns of those that have asked. Every individual upon Earth has an opportunity to ask for Divine assistance, for Divine acknowledgment, for Divine intervention. Many allow themselves to be washed about in a tidal pull as the waves crest pushing them about.

    Each thought that humanity has is more important than the thought before. Within Each thought wisdom either increases or decreases exponentially. Every interaction with every person gives you food for thought to be digested at your own discretion. When you hear sad news move your heart and your energies up to a safe place where one can see the totality of the situation and choose action accordingly.

    Those that wear the higher patterns of light and time without the constraints of Earth will be asked to go beyond what they deem suitable for their experiences as well as commitment to the cause. What this means is that you will be given deep soul insights that will ask you to fly higher, move more mountains and dance through space as well as time. You will be given instructions from the Universe within your heart that ask you to surpass any limitation you thought you had. You will be asked to become one with the legions of light, the legions of God that have no fear. the legions of heart light that hold the heart of humanity within the very palms of their hands.

    So many of earth have chosen not to change, not to move forward, not to believe and not to trust, even themselves. So many of Earth have given up, have not seen their absentee landlord God in many moons, have not felt the presence of holiness, have not seen the manifestations of miracles. What humanity seeks as the proof of the pudding is so animated that it actually has taken form and walks upon earth disguised in humanity and humility.

    The energy of miracles desired may have taken the forms of raindrops that were deeply prayed for on one street but not another. What you seek as a planet now has more mass to it. The biology has changed and shifted in the land of the supernatural, the land of the unseen. The belief system of Earth has faltered because many do not see with the eyes of Faith.

    Most have given up being rescued, most have given up on the angels, and many have given up on God. As a planet you are asked to believe in what is invisible, what cannot be seen, what cannot be felt or touched or smelled or tasted. You are asked to believe in a supernatural being that has placed you here for your highest good and your highest growth and then walked away to another project. You have been asked to believe that every loss, every death every dark day has a divine opportunity wrapped within it – a chewy center that you often stick to.

    We come to tell you that the matter of it is the miracle that you seek walks amongst you. It listens when you speak, it dances in your dreams, it sees the patterns of your heart. The miracles that humanity so needs is guaranteed by the universe if one will only believe to the final hour. for a miniscule pattern of doubt creates a lethal toxicity that cannot be diluted.

    As the planets line up and the eclipses of the heart begin to stake themselves out, a deep deluge of emotions, are raised to the surface – angers and hates, loves and tears are birthed under a sunset full red moon. As the eclipses of August 2009 (solar) and August 2009 (lunar) make themselves felt and seen many of Earth will begin to scream they are a victim of wrong doings.

    As these eclipses birth themselves through the dark womb of life a blue veil of sadness will befall Earth, a heaviness of the heart. A great global saddening weighs down the pulse of earth. Many earthly upheavals will come and people will cry out to the Creator and the Savior for rescue. Rescue is slow to mount their steeds. We must continue to swim to shore praying with every stroke.

    It is a time of becoming a living breathing prayer for someone outside of your self. The sadness that befalls is biological and deep of cellular and stellar content. A giant purging occurs on all of Earth as the planetary heart heaves a deep sign. There is nothing to do but try heard to stay afloat during this rouge tidal wave. Choices cannot be seen in the clear light of day. Many will truly panic and the monetary system of Earth will show that. It is up to each and every one of you to hold high your contract of light above the watermarks of life. Life is circular of nature and this too shall pass but each day and night seems a year long. People that you have taken for granted may walk out of your life or off the planet. People will make choices that do not make sense to anyone around them. Often times these cellular biological upheavals are necessary to expose another shaft of light.

    We are the warriors of light. Do not falter but continue walking forward for there is an end and beginning to all storms. What matters in your world. We are always here for you.

  • Anonymous 09/15/2008 9:02am
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    + -2

    NJ- My benefit year ended at the end of August, my extension was stopped and I was told to reapplied for a new claim. I qualified for a new claim can collect for another 6 months. New Jersey must have 2 benefit years, I had two quarters toward a new claim.

  • Anonymous 09/15/2008 9:08am
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    + -3

    it depends

  • Anonymous 09/15/2008 9:13am
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    + -3

    As you noted, I did have flux for breakfast and yes I have been shedding material continuously all day.

  • Anonymous 09/15/2008 9:18am
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    + -3

    Looks like the Republicans are busy in the House again.

    http://img263.imageshack.us/img263/2312/picture145al8.jpg

  • Anonymous 09/15/2008 9:20am

    GOOD DAY ALL ANOTHER YOUNG REPUBLICAN TOAST:
    When the President submits his budget to Congress, each agency generally provides detailed justification materials to the House and Senate appropriations subcommittees with jurisdiction over its funding. The Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974, as amended, (the Congressional Budget Act)8 requires Congress to adopt an annual budget resolution.9 The budget resolution is Congress’s response to the President’s budget. The budget resolution must cover at least five fiscal years: the upcoming fiscal year plus the four subsequent fiscal years. The budget resolution, in part, sets total new budget authority and outlay levels for each fiscal year covered by the resolution. It also distributes federal spending among 20 functional categories (such as national defense, agriculture, and transportation) and sets similar levels for each function.
    Within each chamber, the total new budget authority and outlays for each fiscal
    year are also distributed among committees with jurisdiction over spending, thereby
    setting spending ceilings for each committee (see “Allocations” section below).10
    The House and Senate Committees on Appropriations receive ceilings only for the
    upcoming fiscal year, because appropriations measures are annual. Once the
    appropriations committees receive their spending ceilings, they separately distribute
    the funding among their respective subcommittees, providing spending ceilings for
    each subcommittee. Congress annually considers several appropriations measures, which provide
    funding for numerous activities, for example, national defense, education, homeland
    security, crime, as well as general government operations. Congress has developed
    certain rules and practices for the consideration of appropriations measures, referred
    to as the congressional appropriations process.
    Appropriations measures are under the jurisdiction of the House and Senate
    Appropriations Committees. These measures provide only about 40% of total federal
    spending for a fiscal year. The House and Senate legislative committees control the
    rest.
    There are three types of appropriations measures. Regular appropriations bills
    provide most of the funding that is provided in all appropriations measures for a
    fiscal year, and must be enacted by October 1 of each year. If regular bills are not
    enacted by the deadline, Congress adopts continuing resolutions to continue funding
    generally until regular bills are enacted. Supplemental appropriations bills provide
    additional appropriations and are typically considered later.
    Each year Congress considers a budget resolution that, in part, sets spending
    ceilings for the upcoming fiscal year. Both the House and Senate have established
    parliamentary rules that may be used to enforce certain spending ceilings associated
    with the budget resolution during consideration of appropriations measures in the
    House and Senate, respectively.
    Congress has also established an authorization-appropriation process that
    provides for two separate types of measures — authorization bills and appropriation
    bills. These measures perform different functions and are to be considered in
    sequence. First, authorization bills establish, continue, or modify agencies or
    programs. Second, appropriations measures may provide spending for the agencies
    and programs previously authorized.
    Congress annually considers several appropriations measures, which provide
    funding for numerous activities, such as national defense, education, homeland
    security, crime, and general government operations. These measures are considered
    by Congress under certain rules and practices, referred to as the congressional
    appropriations process. This report discusses the following aspects of this process:
    ! annual appropriations cycle;
    ! appropriations measures (types);
    ! spending ceilings for appropriations associated with the annual
    budget resolution; and
    ! relationship between authorization and appropriation measures.
    When considering appropriations measures, Congress is exercising the power
    granted to it under the Constitution, which states, “No money shall be drawn from
    the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law.”1 The power to
    appropriate is a legislative power. Congress has enforced its prerogatives with laws
    setting limits on U.S. government officials. A U.S. government employee, for
    example, may not commit the government to spend more than the amount
    appropriated by law and may not make such government funding obligations before
    an appropriation funding those activities becomes law, unless such action is
    statutorily authorized.2 An appropriation may be used only for the programs and
    activities for which Congress made the appropriation, except as otherwise provided
    by law.3
    The President has an important role in the appropriations process by virtue of
    his constitutional power to approve or veto entire measures, unless Congress
    overrides a veto. He also has influence, in part, because of various duties imposed
    by statute, such as submitting an annual budget to Congress.
    The House and Senate Committees on Appropriations have jurisdiction over the
    annual appropriations measures. At the beginning of the 110th Congress, both
    committees reorganized their subcommittees. Each committee now has 12
    subcommittees and each subcommittee has jurisdiction over an annual
    appropriations measure that provides funding for departments and agencies under the
    subcommittee’s jurisdiction.4
    The jurisdictions of these House and Senate appropriations subcommittees are
    generally parallel. That is, each House appropriations subcommittee is paired with
    a Senate appropriations subcommittee and the two subcommittees’ jurisdictions are
    generally identical.
    The President initiates the appropriations process by submitting his annual
    budget for the upcoming fiscal year5 to Congress. He is required to submit his annual
    budget on or before the first Monday in February.6 Congress has, however, provided
    deadline extensions; both statutorily and, sometimes, informally.7
    The President recommends spending levels for various programs and agencies
    of the federal government in the form of budget authority (or BA) because Congress
    provides budget authority instead of cash to agencies. Budget authority is the
    authority provided by federal law to incur financial obligations that will result in
    immediate or future expenditures (or outlays) involving federal funds. Examples of
    financial obligations include entering into contracts to build a submarine or purchase
    supplies. The resulting outlays are payments from the Treasury, usually in the form
    of checks or electronic funds transfers.
    An FY2006 appropriations act, for example, provided $1.6 billion in new
    budget authority for FY2006 to the Department of Defense (DOD) to build a nuclear
    attack submarine. That is, the act gave DOD legal authority to sign contracts to build
    the submarine. The department could not commit the government to pay more than
    $1.6 billion. The outlays occur when government payments are made to the
    contractor.
    An appropriation is a type of budget authority that not only provides the
    authority to make obligations, but also gives the agency legal authority to make the
    subsequent payments from the Treasury. Appropriations must be obligated in the
    fiscal year(s) for which they are provided. Appropriations measures provide new
    budget authority (as opposed to previously enacted budget authority).
    Not all new budget authority provided for a fiscal year is expended that year.
    For example, in the case of construction projects, the outlays may occur over several
    years as various stages of the project are completed.
    In other cases, such as federal employee salaries, the outlays may occur in the same
    fiscal year for which the appropriations are provided.
    As Congress considers appropriations measures providing new budget authority
    for a particular fiscal year, discussions on the resulting outlays only involve
    estimates. Data on the actual outlays for a fiscal year are not available until the fiscal

    The budget resolution is never sent to the President, nor does it become law. It
    does not provide budget authority or raise or lower revenues; instead, it is a guide for
    the House and Senate as they consider various budget-related bills, including
    appropriations and tax measures. Both the House and Senate have established
    parliamentary rules to enforce some of these spending ceilings when appropriations
    measures are considered on the House or Senate floor, respectively. (For more
    details, see “Spending Ceilings for Appropriations Measures” section below).
    The Congressional Budget Act provides an April 15 deadline for final
    congressional adoption of the budget resolution. However, during the 31 fiscal years
    Congress has considered budget resolutions (FY1976-FY2006), Congress frequently
    did not meet this deadline. For three of those years (FY1999, FY2003, and FY2005),
    Congress never completed a budget resolution.11
    While there is no penalty if the budget resolution is not completed or is tardy,
    there may be significant difficulties. First, certain enforceable spending ceilings
    associated with the budget resolution are not established until the budget resolution
    is completed. Second, under the Congressional Budget Act, the Senate can not
    consider appropriations legislation for the upcoming fiscal year until (1) Congress
    completes the budget resolution and (2) Senate Committee on Appropriations
    receives its spending allocations. Furthermore, a three-fifths vote of all Senators (60
    Senators, if there are no vacancies) is required in the Senate to waive this rule or
    appeal the presiding officer’s ruling on a point of order under this rule.12
    The Congressional Budget Act prohibits House consideration of appropriations
    measures for the first fiscal year of the budget resolution until Congress completes
    the budget resolution. But, it provides an exception. Even if the budget resolution
    is not in place, the House may begin considering most appropriations measures13 after
    May 15. No similar exception exists in the Senate.
    If Congress delays completion of the annual budget resolution (or does not
    complete the resolution), each chamber may adopt a deeming resolution to address
    these procedural difficulties.14
    the House of Representatives initiated consideration of
    appropriations measures and the Senate subsequently amended the House-passed
    bills. For the FY1998 through FY2005 regular appropriations bills,15 the Senate
    appropriations subcommittees and committee did not generally wait for the House
    bill; instead, they reported original Senate bills. Under this non-traditional approach,
    both House and Senate appropriations committees and their subcommittees were
    often considering the regular bills simultaneously. The Senate returned to the
    traditional practice, however, for the FY2006 and FY2007 regular appropriations
    bills.
    The House Committee on Appropriations reports the 12 regular appropriations
    bills separately to the full House. The committee begins reporting the bills in May
    or June, completing all or almost all of them by July or the annual August recess.
    Generally, the full House begins consideration of the regular appropriations bills in
    May or June as well, passing most by July or the recess.
    For FY2006 and FY2007, the Senate appropriations committee reported all or
    almost all of the House-passed bills, with its amendments, before the August recess.
    For FY2006, the Senate passed about half of the bills before the August recess and
    the remaining bills in September and October.16
    For half of the past 10 years (FY1998-FY2007), neither chamber passed all the
    regular appropriations bills.17 The regular bills that did not pass were generally
    funded in omnibus appropriations measures (see “Regular Appropriations Bills”
    section below).18
    During the fall, the appropriations committees are usually heavily involved in
    conferences to resolve differences between the two chambers. Relatively little or no
    time is left before the fiscal year begins to resolve what may be wide disparities
    between the House and Senate, to say nothing of those between Congress and the
    President. Congress is usually faced with the need to enact one or more temporary
    continuing resolutions pending the final disposition of the regular appropriations
    bills.19
    After the President submits his budget, the House and Senate appropriations
    subcommittees hold hearings on the segments of the budget under their jurisdiction.
    They focus on the details of the agencies’ justifications, primarily obtaining
    testimony from agency officials.
    After the hearings have been completed and the House and Senate
    appropriations committees have generally received their spending ceilings, the
    subcommittees begin to mark up20 the regular bills under their jurisdiction and report
    them to their respective full committees. Under the traditional practice, which the
    Senate resumed for the FY2006 and FY2007 regular bills, each Senate subcommittee
    would wait to amend the House-passed bill. Both appropriations committees
    consider each of their subcommittee’s recommendations separately. The committees
    may adopt amendments to a subcommittee’s recommendations and then report the
    bill as amended to their respective floors for action.
    After the House or Senate appropriations committee reports an appropriations
    bill to the House or Senate, respectively, the bill is brought to the floor. At this point,
    Representatives or Senators are generally provided an opportunity to propose floor
    amendments to the bill.
    Prior to floor consideration of a regular appropriations bill, the House
    generally considers a special rule reported by the House Committee on Rules setting
    parameters for floor consideration of the bill.21 If the House adopts the special rule,
    it usually considers the appropriations bill immediately.
    The House considers the bill in the Committee of the Whole House on the State
    of the Union (or Committee of the Whole) of which all Representatives are
    members.22 A special rule on an appropriations bill usually provides for one hour of
    general debate on the bill. The debate includes opening statements by the chair and
    ranking minority member23 of the appropriations subcommittee with jurisdiction over
    the regular bill, as well as other interested Representatives.
    After the Committee of the Whole debates the bill, it considers amendments.
    A regular appropriations bill is generally read for amendment, by paragraph.24
    Amendments must meet requirements of theHouse standing rules and precedents, for example, amendments must
    be germane to the bill;
    ! congressional budget process (see “Spending Ceilings for
    Appropriations Measures” section below);
    ! authorization-appropriation process, which enforces the relationship
    between authorization and appropriation measures (see
    “Relationship Between the Authorization and Appropriation
    Measures” section below); and
    ! special rule providing for consideration of the particular bill.
    If an amendment violates any of these requirements, any Representative may raise
    a point of order to that effect. If the presiding officer rules the amendment out of
    order, it cannot be considered on the House floor. The special rule may waive any
    of these requirements, thereby allowing the House to consider the amendment.
    During consideration of individual regular appropriations bills, the House
    sometimes sets additional parameters, either by adopting a special rule or by
    unanimous consent. That is, the House agrees to the new parameters only if no
    Representative objects. For example, the House sometimes agrees to limit debate on
    individual amendments by unanimous consent.
    After the Committee of the Whole completes consideration of the measure, it
    rises (dissolves) and reports the bill with any adopted amendments to the full House.
    The House then votes on the adopted amendments and passage. After House
    passage, the bill is sent to the Senate.
    Senate. The full Senate considers the bill as reported by its appropriations
    committee.25 The Senate does not utilize the device of a special rule to set
    parameters for consideration of bills. Before taking up the bill, however, or during
    its consideration, the Senate sometimes sets parameters by unanimous consent.
    When the bill is brought up on the floor, the chair and ranking minority member
    of the appropriations subcommittee make opening statements on the contents of the
    bill as reported.
    Committee and floor amendments to the reported bills must meet requirements
    under the Senate standing rules and precedents, congressional budget process,
    authorization-appropriation process, as well as requirements agreed to by unanimous
    consent. The specifics of the Senate and House requirements differ, including the
    waiver procedures. The Senate, in contrast to the House, does not consider floor amendments in the
    order of the bill. Senators may propose amendments to any portion of the bill at any
    time unless the Senate agrees to set limits. Generally, members of the House and Senate appropriations subcommittees
    having jurisdiction over a particular regular appropriations bill, and the chair and
    ranking minority members of the full committees meet to negotiate over differences
    between the House- and Senate-passed bills.27
    Under House and Senate rules, the negotiators (or conferees or managers) are
    generally required to remain within the scope of the differences between the positions
    of the two chambers.28 Their agreement must be within the range established by the
    House- and Senate-passed versions. For example, if the House-passed bill
    appropriates $3 million for a program and a separate Senate amendment provides $5
    million, the conferees must reach an agreement that is within the $3-$5 million range.
    However, these rules are not always followed.29
    The Senate typically passes a single substitute amendment to each House bill.
    In such instances, the conferees must reach agreement on all points of difference
    between the House and Senate versions before reporting the conference report in
    agreement to both houses. When this occurs, the conferees propose a new conference
    substitute for the bill as a whole. The conferees attach a joint explanatory statement
    (or managers’ statement) explaining the new substitute.
    Usually, the House considers conference reports on appropriations measures
    first because it traditionally considers the measures first. The first house to consider
    a conference report has the option of voting to recommit the report to the conference
    for further consideration, rejecting the conference report, or adopting it. After the
    first house adopts the conference report, the conference is automatically disbanded;
    therefore, the second house has two options — adopt or reject the conference report.
    Conference reports cannot be amended in either the House or Senate.
    If the conference report is rejected, or is recommitted by the first house, the
    conferees negotiate further over the matters in dispute between the two houses.30 The measure cannot be sent to the President until both houses have agreed to the entire
    text of the bill. After Congress sends the bill to the President, he has 10 days to sign or veto the
    measure. If he takes no action, the bill automatically becomes law at the end of the
    10-day period. Conversely, if he takes no action when Congress has adjourned, he
    may pocket veto the bill.
    If the President vetoes the bill, he sends it back to Congress. Congress may
    override the veto by a two-thirds vote in both houses. If Congress successfully
    overrides the veto, the bill becomes law. If Congress is unsuccessful, the bill dies.
    There are three major types appropriations measures: regular appropriations
    bills, continuing resolutions, and supplementals. Of the three types, regular
    appropriations bills typically provide most of the funding. The House and Senate annually consider several regular appropriations
    measures. Each House and Senate appropriations subcommittee has jurisdiction over
    one regular bill. Due to the House and Senate appropriations committees’ recent
    reorganization, therefore, each chamber will consider 12 regular bills.
    Regular appropriations bills contain a series of unnumbered paragraphs with
    headings; each is generally an account. The basic unit of appropriation is the
    account. Under these measures, funding for each department and large independent
    agency is distributed among several accounts. Each account, generally, includes
    similar programs, projects, or items, such as a “research and development” account
    or “salaries and expenses” account. For small agencies, a single account may fund
    all of the agency’s activities. These acts typically provide a lump-sum amount for
    each of these accounts. A few accounts include a single program, project, or item,
    which the appropriations acts fund individually.
    In report language,32 the House and Senate Committees on Appropriations
    provide more detailed directions to the department and agencies on the distribution
    of funding among various activities funded within an account. Funding for most
    local projects are included in report language, as opposed to the text of the
    appropriations bill. Appropriations measures may also provide transfer authority.33 Transfers shift
    budget authority from one account or fund to another. For example, if the DOD
    moved budget authority from the “Aircraft Procurement, Navy” account to the
    “Shipbuilding and Conversion, Navy” account, that would be a transfer. Agencies
    are prohibited from making such transfers without statutory authority.
    In contrast, agencies may generally shift budget authority from one activity to
    another within an account without such statutory authority; this activity is referred
    to as reprogramming.34 The appropriations subcommittees have established
    notification and other oversight procedures for the various agencies to follow
    regarding reprogramming actions. Generally, these procedures differ with each
    subcommittee.
    Congress has traditionally considered and approved each regular appropriations
    bill separately, but Congress has recently combined bills together. For 18 of the past
    31 years (FY1977-FY2007), Congress packaged two or more regular appropriations
    bills together in one measure, or, in the case of FY2001, into two measures.35 These
    packages are referred to as omnibus measures or mini-bus measures.36
    In these cases, Congress typically began consideration of each regular bill
    separately, but generally in conference combined some of the bills together. During
    conference on a single regular appropriations bill, the conferees typically included
    in the conference report final agreements on other outstanding regular appropriations
    bills, thereby creating an omnibus or minibus appropriations measure.
    Packaging, was used for nine consecutive fiscal years beginning for FY1980. The first two of those years (FY1980-FY1981) occurred while President Jimmy Carter was in the White House, and the remaining seven were during Ronald Reagan’s presidency. Since that time, it has been used nine times —five during President William Jefferson Clinton’s presidency (FY1996-FY1997 and FY1999-FY2001) and four while President George W. Bush has been in the White
    House (FY2003-FY2005 and FY2007).
    In two of the years (FY1987 and FY1988) during Ronald Reagan’s presidency,
    all the bills were enacted together, and in two years (FY2003 and FY2007) while
    President George W. Bush has been in the White House, all but two bills were
    enacted together. (From FY1977 through FY2005, Congress annually considered 13
    regular appropriations bills and, for FY2006 and FY2007, Congress generally
    considered 11 regular bills.)37
    Packaging regular appropriations bills can be an efficient means of resolving
    outstanding differences within Congress and between Congress and the President.
    The negotiators can make more convenient trade-offs between issues among several
    bills. During the 2005 reorganization of the House and Senate Committees on Appropriations,
    the House committee reduced the number of its subcommittees from 13 to 10 and the Senate
    committee reduced its number from 13 to 12. The full House committee had jurisdiction
    over one bill. The House, therefore, initially considered 11 regular bills and the Senate
    considered 12. During consideration of the appropriations bills, the Senate combined two
    bills, resulting in 11 regular bills. Regular appropriations bills expire at the end of the fiscal year. If action on one
    or more regular appropriations measures has not been completed by the deadline, the
    agencies funded by these bills must cease nonessential activities due to lack of budget
    authority. Traditionally, continuing appropriations have been used to maintain
    temporary funding to agencies and programs until the regular bills are enacted. Such
    appropriations continuing funding are usually provided in a joint resolution, hence
    the term continuing resolution (or CR).
    In November and again in December 1995, FY1996 continuing resolutions
    expired and some regular appropriations bills had not been enacted. As a result,
    nonessential activities that would have been funded in those regular bills stopped and
    federal workers hired to perform those services did not report for duty.
    In 26 of the past 31 years (FY1977-FY2007), Congress and the President did not
    complete action on a majority of the regular bills by the start of the fiscal year .
    In eight years, they did not finish any of the bills by the deadline. They
    completed action on all the bills on schedule only four times: FY1977, FY1989,
    FY1995, and FY1997.
    On or before the deadline, Congress and the President generally complete action
    on an initial continuing resolution that temporarily funds the outstanding regular
    appropriations bills. In contrast to funding practices in regular bills (i.e., providing
    appropriations for each account), temporary continuing resolutions generally provide
    funding by a rate and/or formula. Recently, the continuing resolutions have generally
    provided a rate at the levels provided in the previous fiscal year. The initial CR
    typically provides temporary funding until a specific date or until the enactment of
    the applicable regular appropriations acts, if earlier. Once the initial CR becomes
    law, additional interim continuing resolutions are frequently utilized to sequentially
    extend the expiration date. These subsequent continuing resolutions sometimes
    change the funding methods. Over the past 31 fiscal years, Congress has approved,
    on average, four continuing resolutions each year
    Congress frequently considers one or more supplemental appropriations
    measures for a fiscal year that provide additional funds for specified activities.
    Supplementals may provide funding for unforeseen needs (such as funds to recover
    from a hurricane, earthquake or flood); or increase or provide funding for other
    activities. These measures, like regular appropriations bills, provide specific
    amounts of funding for individual accounts in the bill. Sometimes Congress includes
    supplemental appropriations in regular bills and continuing resolutions.
    During a calendar year, Congress typically considers, at least
    ! 12 regular appropriations bills for the fiscal year that begins on
    October 1;
    ! several continuing resolutions for the same fiscal year; and
    ! one or more supplementals for the previous fiscal year. Congress established the congressional budget process through which it
    annually sets spending ceilings associated with the budget resolution and enforces
    those ceilings with parliamentary rules, or points of order, during congressional
    consideration of appropriations billsAs mentioned previously, within each chamber, the total budget authority and
    outlays included in the annual budget resolution are distributed among the House and
    Senate committees with jurisdiction over spending, including the House and Senate
    Committees on Appropriations. Through this allocation process, the budget
    resolution sets total spending ceilings for each House and Senate committee (referred
    to as the 302(a) allocations).39 providing 302(a) allocations to the House
    Committee on Appropriations for FY2006.
    includes allocations for discretionary spending and mandatory
    spending. Congress divides budget authority and the resulting outlays into two
    categories: discretionary spending and mandatory spending (including net interest40).
    Discretionary spending is controlled by the annual appropriations acts, which are
    under the jurisdiction of the House and Senate Committees on Appropriations. In
    contrast, mandatory spending is controlled by authorization (or legislative) acts under
    the jurisdiction of the authorization (or legislative) committees (principally the House
    Committee on Ways and Means and Senate Committee on Finance).41
    Appropriations measures include all the discretionary spending and some of the
    mandatory spending.
    Discretionary spending provides funds for a wide variety of activities, such as
    those described in the “Introduction” above, whereas mandatory spending primarily
    funds entitlement programs42 as well as other mandatory spending programs. Of total
    actual outlays for FY2006, only 38% was discretionary spending; the remaining 62%
    was mandatory spending (9% was net interest).
    Regarding the distribution of discretionary spending outlays for FY2006, 51%
    of the outlays was for defense activities, 45% for domestic activities, and 4% for
    international activities.
    The mandatory spending provided in appropriations measures is predominantly
    for entitlement programs, referred to as appropriated entitlements. Appropriated
    entitlements are funded through a two-step process. First, authorizing legislation
    becomes law that sets program parameters (through eligibility requirements and
    benefit levels, for example); then the appropriations committees must provide the
    budget authority needed to meet the commitment. The appropriations committees
    have little control over the amount of budget authority provided, since the amount
    needed is the result of previously enacted commitments in legislative law.43
    Instead of directly controlling outlays, Congress controls discretionary spending
    by setting levels of new budget authority for specific activities, programs, and
    agencies in annual appropriations measures. Congress could have, for example,
    provided $2.6 billion in new budget authority to build the nuclear attack submarine,
    mentioned earlier, instead of $1.6 billion.
    Congress also controls mandatory spending by controlling budget authority. It
    does not, however, generally control this form of budget authority by setting specific
    spending levels. It controls mandatory spending by establishing parameters for
    government commitments in permanent law, such as Social Security benefit levels
    and eligibility requirements.
    After the House and Senate Committees on Appropriations receive their 302(a)
    allocations, they separately divide their allocations among their subcommittees,
    providing each subcommittee with a ceiling. These subdivisions are referred to as
    the 302(b) allocations.44 providing the House Committee on Appropriations’
    initial 302(b) allocations of discretionary, mandatory, and total spending for FY2006.
    Making 302(b) allocations is within the jurisdiction of the House and Senate
    appropriations committees, and they typically make revisions to reflect action on the
    appropriations bills. The spending ceilings associated with the annual budget resolution that apply
    to appropriations measures are generally for a single fiscal year (the upcoming fiscal
    year), since appropriations measures are annual.45 If the budget resolution is
    significantly delayed (or is never completed), there are no total spending ceilings,
    302(a) allocations, or 302(b) allocations to enforce until the budget resolution is
    completed. In such instances, the House and Senate have often adopted separate
    deeming resolutions providing, at least, temporary 302(a) allocations, thereby,
    establishing some enforceable spending ceilings.46
    Since Congress was not expected to adopt a FY2007 budget resolution, both the
    House and Senate adopted separate deeming resolutions last year. The House
    adopted a special rule47 that, in part, deemed the House-adopted FY2007 budget
    resolution48 and accompanying committee report in effect for enforcement purposes.
    As a result, the FY2007 total spending ceilings and 302(a) allocations (and therefore,
    subsequent 302(b) allocations) are in effect.49 The Senate included in a FY2006
    supplemental appropriations act a deeming provision that, in part, set FY2007 302(a)
    allocations for the Senate Committee on Appropriations Certain spending ceilings associated with the budget resolution are enforced
    through points of order raised on the House and Senate floors when the
    appropriations measures are considered. These points of order are not self-enforcing.
    A Representative or Senator must raise a point of order that a measure, amendment,
    or conference report violates a specific rule. Generally, if a Member raises a point
    of order below and the presiding officer rules that the measure, amendment, or
    conference report violates the parliamentary rule, it may not be considered on the
    floor. Two Congressional Budget Act points of order, 302(f) and 311(a),51
    as well as a separate order in the House52 are available to enforce certain spending
    ceilings associated with the annual budget resolution. The Congressional Budget Act
    points of order apply to committee-reported appropriations bills,53 certain nonreported
    appropriations bills,54 amendments, and conference reports to these
    measures; they do not apply to appropriations bills amended on the floor. The
    separate order, however, provides a procedure to enforce the 302(b) ceilings for
    certain amended appropriations measures during the 110th Congress.
    The 302(f) point of order prohibits floor consideration of such legislation55 and
    conference reports that provide budget authority exceeding the committee or
    subcommittee allocations of new budget authority (the 302(a) or 302(b) allocations,
    respectively). In effect, this point of order applies to total discretionary spending
    (and any mandatory spending changes initiated on the appropriations measures).56
    For example, the reported FY2006 Agriculture regular appropriations bill could not
    have exceeded the Agriculture subcommittee’s total discretionary spending allocation
    for FY2006 — $16.832 billion
    These refer to sections 302(f) and 311(a), respectively, of the Congressional Budget Act
    (see also, section 403 of H.Res. 6 (110th Cong.).
    52 A separate order is a provision that is not a part of the House Standing Rules, but is
    provided under the rulemaking authority of the House. Section 511(a)(5) of H.Res. 6 (110th
    Cong.) established the separate order, which is identical to a separate order established in
    the previous Congress (section 2 of H.Res. 248 (109th Cong.).
    53 The House Committee on Appropriations almost always reports regular and major
    supplemental appropriations bills. It, however, does not generally report continuing
    resolutions.
    54 If a special rule expedites consideration of a measure by ordering the previous question
    directly to passage, the form of the measure considered is subject to the points of order.
    Some continuing resolutions are considered by this procedure.
    55 In this context, legislation refers the committee-reported and non-committee reported bills
    as well as amendments to those bills. This definition contrasts with “legislation” as it is
    defined for purposes of the authorization-appropriation process (see “Relationship Between
    Authorization and Appropriation Measures” below).
    56 It does not affect increased mandatory spending that the appropriators are required to
    provide. For example, if the House Committee on Appropriations is required to increase
    new budget authority for unemployment compensation due to a recession, such budget
    authority would not be subject to the point of order.
    57 Although the 302(f) point of order in the House enforces new budget authority ceilings,
    under House rules certain offset amendments must remain within the total new budget
    authority and outlay levels provided in the bill. Due to the 302(f) point of order, Members
    frequently must decrease budget authority in a bill for certain activities in order to finance
    increases in funding for other activities in order to stay within the 302(a) or 302(b)
    allocations (the decreases are referred to as offsets.) An amendment providing both the
    increases and decreases is referred to as an offset amendment. Frequently, the increases and
    offsets Members prefer are not located in the same place in the bill, and the affected
    segments would normally be considered at different times on the House floor.
    Offset amendments that amend the text of the bill in more than one place must remain
    within the total new budget authority and outlay levels provided in the bill (House Rule
    The 311(a) point of order prohibits floor consideration of such legislation or
    conference reports that would exceed the total new budget authority or outlay ceilings
    in the budget resolution. As Congress acts on various spending bills for a fiscal year,
    the amount of total new budget authority and the resulting outlays accumulate and
    the budget resolution ceilings are eventually reached. An appropriations bill that
    would go over either ceiling is subject to the 311(a) point of order. If all spending
    bills stay within the applicable committee spending ceilings, a bill will not exceed the
    total ceilings established in the budget resolution. However, in the past, some
    funding bills have exceeded their committee ceilings, thereby making the last
    spending bills considered subject to the 311(a) point of order. In the House, the
    Fazio Exception58 exempts certain appropriations from the 311(a) point of order. If
    the House Committee on Appropriations does not exceed its total committee
    allocations, then the appropriations measures, amendments, and conference reports
    are exempt from the 311(a) point of order.59
    For the 110th Congress, the separate order extends enforcement of 302(b)
    allocations to appropriations bills amended in the Committee of the Whole.60
    Regular appropriations bills and major supplemental appropriations measures are
    typically considered for amendment in the Committee of the Whole. The order
    generally establishes a point of order in the Committee of the Whole against a motion
    to rise and report to the House an appropriations bill that, as amended, exceeds the
    applicable 302(b) allocation in new budget authority. If the Presiding Officer
    sustains a point of order against such a motion, the bill does not fall or automatically
    remain in the Committee of the Whole; instead, the Committee of the Whole decides,
    by a vote, whether to adopt the motion even though the amended measure exceeds
    the allocation.61 An offset amendment added at the end of a bill that indirectly effects
    earlier provisions in the bill would not fall under the procedure provided in Rule XXI,
    clause 2(f). However it would still be subject to requirements in section 302. That is, it may
    not cause the bill to exceed new budget authority allocations made pursuant to 302(a) or (b).
    (For more information, see CRS Report RL31055, House Offset Amendments to
    Appropriations Bills: Procedural Considerations, by Sandy Streeter.)
    58 The title of the exception refers to former Representative Victor Herbert Fazio, Jr., (CA).
    59 Section 311© of the Congressional Budget Act, as amended.
    60 For general information on the Committee of the Whole, see “House and Senate Floor
    Action, House” above and, for more detailed information, see CRS Report RL32200,
    Debate, Motions, and Other Actions in the Committee of the Whole, by Bill Heniff Jr. and
    Elizabeth Rybicki; and CRS Report RS20147, Committee of the Whole: An Introduction, by
    Judy Schneider.
    61 If the committee votes against “rising,” it may consider one proper amendment, such as
    an amendment reducing funds in the bill to bring it into compliance with the allocation. The
    separate order also provides an up-or-down vote on the amendment. Only one such point
    of order may be raised against a measure.
    Special rules providing for the consideration of bills routinely preclude a motion to rise
    and report by ordering the Committee of the Whole to rise and report after all amendments
    have been considered. Since adoption of the original separate order (H.Res. 248 (109th
    Cong.) on April 28, 2005, almost all special rules providing for the consideration of regular
    Order. Significantly, the separate order does not apply to a motion to rise and report
    proposed after the bill has been read for amendment, if offered by the majority leader
    (or a designee).
    The House may waive or suspend the three points of order by adopting, by
    majority vote, a special rule waiving the particular point of order prior to floor
    consideration of the appropriations legislation.
    Two points of order, 302(f) and 311(a),62 enforce spending ceilings
    that affect appropriations measures. The Senate versions of these rules vary from the
    House versions. In the Senate, these points of order apply to all appropriations
    measures, both those reported by the committee and amended on the floor, as well
    as amendments, motions, and conferences reports to these measures.
    The Senate 302(f) point of order prohibits floor consideration of legislation,
    motions, and conference reports that exceed the subcommittee allocations in new
    budget authority and total outlays. In contrast to the House, it does not enforce the
    302(a) allocations. As in the House, this point of order, in effect, applies to total
    discretionary spending (and any mandatory spending changes initiated on the
    appropriations measures). The 311(a) point of order in the Senate is similar to the
    House version; however, it does not include the Fazio Exception.
    Senators may make motions to waive these points of order at the time the issue
    is raised. Currently, a vote of three-fifths of all Senators (60 Senators, if there are no
    vacancies) is required to approve a waiver motion for any of these points of order.
    A vote to appeal the presiding officer’s ruling also requires three-fifths vote of all
    Senators. These super-majority vote requirements expire on September 30, 2010.
    Since 1990, both the House and Senate have,
    generally, developed procedures to exempt from the above spending ceilings funding
    for emergencies. These procedures have evolved; now, budget authority (and
    resulting outlays) designated as emergency spending in appropriations measures,
    amendments, and conference reports are exempt.63
    For FY2007, the House also exempts spending in appropriations legislation and
    conference reports that are designated “for contingency operations directly related to
    appropriations bills have not included such an order, thereby, providing an opportunity for
    Representatives to raise this point of order.
    62 These refer to sections 302(f) and 311(a), respectively, of the Congressional Budget Act.
    63 For current House procedures, see H.Con.Res. 376 (109th Cong.), as adopted by the
    House, sec. 402 and title V. For current Senate procedures, see U.S. Congress, Conference
    Committees, 2005, Concurrent Resolution on the Budget for Fiscal Year 2006, conference
    report to accompany H.Con.Res. 95, 109th Cong., 1st sess., H.Rept. 109-62 (Washington:
    GPO, 2005), sec. 402; P.L. 109-234, sec. 7035; and S.Con.Res. 83 (109th Cong.), as adopted
    by the Senate, sec. 402. For general information on rules regarding emergency designations,
    see CRS Report RS21035, Emergency Spending: Statutory and Congressional Rules
    the global war on terrorism, and other unanticipated defense-related operations”
    (contingency operations).
    In practice, House emergency and contingency operations designations may be
    included in the committee-reported bills and conference reports, but not in floor
    amendments. Under House precedents, these designations are considered legislation
    on an appropriations bill, which are prohibited.64 The House, sometimes, adopts a
    special rule waiving this point of order against emergency and contingency
    operations designations in the reported bills and conference reports, but not such
    provisions in floor amendments.
    By contrast, under Senate precedents such designations are not considered
    legislation on an appropriations bill. Emergency designations may be included in
    Senate floor amendments as well as committee amendments, reported bills, amended
    bills, and conference reports.
    Emergency designations for non-defense spending are, however, subject to
    another point of order.65 If this point of order is raised and sustained, the emergency
    designation is stricken and the funding is then subject to the points of order enforcing
    the spending ceilings. In order to waive this point of order, a three-fifths vote of all
    Senators is required, thereby requiring super-majority support. A vote to appeal the
    presiding officer’s ruling also requires three-fifths vote of all Senators.
    For FY2007, both chambers have established different ceilings on designated funding
    exemptions. Under House procedures, there is a $6.450 billion limit on non defense
    discretionary spending, any additional non-defense discretionary designated
    funds may only be exempt if approved generally by the House Committee on the
    Budget.66 There is no House ceiling on defense spending, “contingency operations.”
    The Senate, by contrast, set a FY2007 total limit of $86.3 billion on all funds
    designated as an emergency, both defense and non-defense spending Specifically, special budgetary designations pursuant to the concurrent resolution on the
    budget are considered “legislation on an appropriations bill.” Special budgetary
    designations include provisions (1) designating funds as “making appropriations for
    contingency operations directly related to the global war on terrorism and other
    unanticipated defense-related operations” under sec. 402 of H.Con.Res 376 (109th Cong.);
    and (2) designating funds as “an emergency requirement” under title v of the same
    resolution. For more information on legislation on an appropriations bill, see “Relationship
    Between Authorization and Appropriation Measures”
    Congress has established an authorization-appropriation process that provides
    for two separate types of measures — authorization measures and appropriation
    measures. These bills perform different functions and are to be considered in
    sequence. First, the authorization measure is considered and then the appropriation
    measure.
    Authorization acts establish, continue, or modify agencies or programs. For
    example, an authorization act may establish or modify programs within the
    Department of Defense. The authorization act also authorizes subsequent
    appropriations for specific agencies and programs, frequently setting spending
    ceilings for them. These authorization of appropriations provisions may be
    permanent, annual, or multi-year authorizations. Annual and multi-year provisions
    require re-authorizations when they expire. Congress is not required to provide
    appropriations for an authorized discretionary spending program.
    Authorization measures are under the jurisdiction of legislative committees such
    as the House Committees on Agriculture and Homeland Security, or the Senate
    Committees on Armed Services and the Judiciary. Most congressional committees
    are legislative committees.68 The House and Senate Committees on Appropriations,
    however, are not. Appropriations measures provide new budget authority for the
    program, activity, or agency previously authorized.
    The authorization-appropriation process enforces separation of these functions
    into different measures by separating committee jurisdiction over authorization and
    appropriations bills and with points of order prohibiting certain provisions in
    appropriations measures.69 The House and Senate prohibit, in varying degrees,
    language in appropriations bills providing unauthorized appropriations or legislation
    on an appropriations bill (or legislation). An unauthorized appropriation is new
    budget authority in an appropriations measure (amendment or conference report) for
    agencies or programs whose authorization has expired or was never authorized, or
    whose budget authority exceeds the ceiling authorized. Legislation refers to language
    in appropriations measures that change existing law, such as establishing new law,
    or amending or repealing current law. Legislation is under the jurisdiction of the
    authorizing committees (also called legislative committees).
    House rules prohibit unauthorized appropriations and legislation in regular
    appropriations bills and supplemental appropriations measures, which provide funds
    for more than one purpose or agency (referred to in the House as general
    appropriations bills). However, House rules do not prohibit such provisions in The House Ways and Means Committee and Senate Finance Committee have jurisdiction
    over some authorization measures, all revenue measures, and some mandatory spending
    measures.
    69 House Rule XXI, clause 2; House Rule XXII, clause 5; and Senate Rule XVI. House rules
    also prohibit appropriations in authorization measures, amendments, or conference reports
    (Rule XXI, clause 4 and House Rule XXII, clause 5).
    continuing resolutions. The House prohibition applies to bills reported by the House
    Appropriations Committee, amendments, and conference reports. The House may
    adopt a special rule waiving this rule prior to floor consideration of the
    appropriations bill or conference report.70 The point of order applies to the text of the
    bills, amendments, and conference reports; not the committee report or the joint
    explanatory statement.
    In the Senate, unauthorized appropriations and legislation are treated differently.
    The Senate rule regarding such language applies to regular bills, supplementals which
    provide funds for more than one purpose or agency, and continuing resolutions
    (referred to in the Senate as general appropriations bills).
    This Senate rule applies only to amendments to general appropriations bills,
    such as, those
    ! introduced on the Senate floor;
    ! reported by the Senate Appropriations Committee to the Housepassed
    measure; or
    ! proposed as a substitute for the House-passed text.
    The rule does not apply to provisions in Senate bills or conference reports.71 For
    example, this rule did not apply to provisions in S. 1005, the FY1998 Defense
    appropriations bill, as reported by the Senate Appropriations Committee. But it did
    apply to provisions in H.R. 2107, the FY1998 Interior bill, as reported by the Senate
    Appropriations Committee, since this version of the bill consisted of amendments to
    the House-passed bill.72 Recently, the Senate has adopted procedures, on a bill-bybill
    basis, that make these points of order applicable to the provisions of Senate bills.
    The Senate rule is less restrictive than the House on unauthorized
    appropriations. For example, the Senate Appropriations Committee may report
    committee amendments containing unauthorized appropriations. An appropriation
    is considered authorized if the Senate previously passes the authorization bill during
    the same session of Congress. In contrast, in the House, the authorization must be
    in law.
    Although the Senate rule generally prohibits unauthorized appropriations in noncommittee
    amendments, Senators rarely raise this point of order because of
    exceptions to the rule.
    The special rule may provide a waiver for specified provisions or all provisions in the bill
    that are subject to the point of order. The special rule may also provide a waiver for specific
    amendments. Special rules typically waive points of order against all provisions in all
    conference reports on general appropriations measures.
    71 The rule also does not apply to language in committee reports or joint explanatory
    statements.
    72 The Senate rule reflects Senate practices at the time the rule was established. The Senate
    Appropriations Committee traditionally reported numerous amendments to the Housepassed
    appropriations bill, instead of reporting an original Senate bill. Therefore, the rule’s
    prohibition only applies to amendments, both committee and floor amendments.
    The Senate rule prohibits legislation in both Senate Appropriations Committee
    amendments and non-committee amendments.73 It also prohibits non-germane
    amendments.
    The division between an authorization and an appropriation is limited to
    congressional consideration of appropriations measures. If unauthorized
    appropriations or legislation remain in a measure as enacted, either because no one
    raised a point of order or the House or Senate waived the rules, the provision will
    have the force of law. Again, enacted unauthorized appropriations are generally
    available for obligation or expenditure.
    Rescissions cancel previously enacted budget authority. To continue the earlier
    example, after Congress enacted the $1.6 billion to construct the submarine, it could
    enact legislation canceling the budget authority prior to its obligation. Rescissions
    are an expression of changed or differing priorities. They may also be used to offset
    increases in budget authority for other activities.
    The President may recommend rescissions to Congress, but it is up to Congress
    to act on them. Under Title X of the Congressional Budget Act,74 Congress must
    enact a bill approving the President’s rescissions within 45 days of continuous
    session of Congress or the budget authority must be spent.
    In practice, this usually means that funds proposed for rescission not approved
    by Congress must be made available for obligation after about 60 calendar days,
    although the period can extend to 75 days or longer.75
    In response to the President’s recommendation, Congress may decide not to
    approve the amount specified by the President, approve the total amount, or approve
    a different amount. In 2005, the President requested a rescission of $106 million
    from the Department of Defense (DOD), Operations and Maintenance, Defense-Wide
    account and $48.6 million from DOD, Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation,
    Army account. Congress provided a rescission of $80 million from the first account
    in the Department of Defense, Emergency Supplemental Appropriations to Address
    Under Senate precedents, an amendment containing legislation may be considered if it is
    germane to language in the House-passed appropriations bill. That is, if the House opens
    the door by including a legislative provision in an appropriations bill, the Senate has an
    “inherent right” to amend it. However, if the Senate considers an original Senate bill, rather
    than the House-passed bill with amendments, there is no House language to which the
    legislative provision could be germane. Therefore, the defense of germaneness is not
    available.
    74 Title X is referred to as the Impoundment Control Act
    Hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico, and Pandemic Influenza Act, 2006.76 The act did
    not provide a rescission from the second account.
    Congress may also initiate rescissions. In the above act, Congress also initiated
    a rescission of $10 million from the Department of State, Diplomatic and Consular
    Programs account.
    As budget authority providing the funding must be enacted into law, so, too, a
    rescission canceling the budget authority must be enacted into law. Rescissions can
    be included in either separate rescission measures or any of the three types of
    appropriations measures.

    1. Whenever a bill or joint resolution shall be offered, its introduction shall, if objected to, be postponed for one day.
    2. Every bill and joint resolution shall receive three readings previous to its passage which readings on demand of any Senator shall be on three different legislative days, and the Presiding Officer shall give notice at each reading whether it be the first, second, or third: Provided,That each reading may be by title only, unless the Senate in any case shall otherwise order.
    3. No bill or joint resolution shall be committed or amended until it shall have been twice read, after which it may be referred to a committee; bills and joint resolutions introduced on leave, and bills and joint resolutions from the House of Representatives, shall be read once, and may be read twice, if not objected to, on the same day for reference, but shall not be considered on that day nor debated, except for reference, unless by unanimous consent.
    4. Every bill and joint resolution reported from a committee, not having previously been read, shall be read once, and twice, if not objected to, on the same day, and placed on the Calendar in the order in which the same may be reported; and every bill and joint resolution introduced on leave, and every bill and joint resolution of the House of Representatives which shall have received a first and second reading without being referred to a committee, shall, if objection be made to further proceeding thereon, be placed on the Calendar.
    5. All bills, amendments, and joint resolutions shall be examined under the supervision of the Secretary of the Senate before they go out of the possession of the Senate, and all bills and joint resolutions which shall have passed both Houses shall be examined under the supervision of the Secretary of the Senate, to see that the same are correctly enrolled, and, when signed by the Speaker of the House and the President of the Senate, the Secretary of the Senate shall forthwith present the same, when they shall have originated in the Senate, to the President of the United States and report the fact and date of such presentation to the Senate.
    6. All other resolutions shall lie over one day for consideration, if not referred, unless by unanimous consent the Senate shall otherwise direct. When objection is heard to the immediate consideration of a resolution or motion when it is submitted, it shall be placed on the Calendar under the heading of “Resolutions and Motions over, under the Rule,” to be laid before the Senate on the next legislative day when there is no further morning business but before the close of morning business and before the termination of the morning hour.
    7. When a bill or joint resolution shall have been ordered to be read a third time, it shall not be in order to propose amendments, unless by unanimous consent, but it shall be in order at any time before the passage of any bill or resolution to move its commitment; and when the bill or resolution shall again be reported from the committee it shall be placed on the Calendar.
    8. When a bill or resolution is accompanied by a preamble, the question shall first be put on the bill or resolution and then on the preamble, which may be withdrawn by a mover before an amendment of the same, or ordering of the yeas and nays; or it may be laid on the table without prejudice to the bill or resolution, and shall be a final disposition of such preamble.
    9. Whenever a private bill, except a bill for a pension, is under consideration, it shall be in order to move the adoption of a resolution to refer the bill to the Chief Commissioner of the Court of Claims for a report in conformity with section 2509 of title 28, United States Code.
    10. No private bill or resolution (including socalled omnibus claims or pension bills), and no amendment to any bill or resolution, authorizing or directing (1) the payment of money for property damages, personal injuries, or death, for which a claim may be filed under chapter 171 of title 28, United States Code, or for a pension (other than to carry out a provision of law or treaty stipulation); (2) the construction of a bridge across a navigable stream; or (3) the correction of a military or naval record, shall be received or considered.
    1. (a) When a treaty shall be laid before the Senate for ratification, it shall be read a first time; and no motion in respect to it shall be in order, except to refer it to a committee, to print it in confidence for the use of the Senate, or to remove the injunction of secrecy.
    (b) When a treaty is reported from a committee with or without amendment, it shall, unless the Senate unanimously otherwise directs, lie over one day for consideration; after which it may be read a second time, after which amendments may be proposed. At any stage of such proceedings the Senate may remove the injunction of secrecy from the treaty.
    © The decisions thus made shall be reduced to the form of a resolution of ratification, with or without amendments, as the case may be, which shall be proposed on a subsequent day, unless, by unanimous consent, the Senate determine otherwise, at which stage no amendment to the treaty shall be received unless by unanimous consent; but the resolution of ratification when pending shall be open to amendment in the form of reservations, declarations, statements, or understandings.
    (d) On the final question to advise and consent to the ratification in the form agreed to, the concurrence of twothirds of the Senators present shall be necessary to determine it in the affirmative; but all other motions and questions upon a treaty shall be decided by a majority vote, except a motion to postpone indefinitely, which shall be decided by a vote of twothirds.
    2. Treaties transmitted by the President to the Senate for ratification shall be resumed at the second or any subsequent session of the same Congress at the stage in which they were left at the final adjournment of the session at which they were transmitted; but all proceedings on treaties shall terminate with the Congress, and they shall be resumed at the commencement of the next Congress as if no proceedings had previously been had thereon
    1. On a point of order made by any Senator, no amendments shall be received to any general appropriation bill the effect of which will be to increase an appropriation already contained in the bill, or to add a new item of appropriation, unless it be made to carry out the provisions of some existing law, or treaty stipulation, or act or resolution previously passed by the Senate during that session; or unless the same be moved by direction of the Committee on Appropriations or of a committee of the Senate having legislative jurisdiction of the subject matter, or proposed in pursuance of an estimate submitted in accordance with law.
    2. The Committee on Appropriations shall not report an appropriation bill containing amendments to such bill proposing new or general legislation or any restriction on the expenditure of the funds appropriated which proposes a limitation not authorized by law if such restriction is to take effect or cease to be effective upon the happening of a contingency, and if an appropriation bill is reported to the Senate containing amendments to such bill proposing new or general legislation or any such restriction, a point of order may be made against the bill, and if the point is sustained, the bill shall be recommitted to the Committee on Appropriations.
    3. All amendments to general appropriation bills moved by direction of a committee having legislative jurisdiction of the subject matter proposing to increase an appropriation already contained in the bill, or to add new items of appropriation, shall, at least one day before they are considered, be referred to the Committee on Appropriations, and when actually proposed to the bill no amendment proposing to increase the amount stated in such amendment shall be received on a point of order made by any Senator.
    4. On a point of order made by any Senator, no amendment offered by any other Senator which proposes general legislation shall be received to any general appropriation bill, nor shall any amendment not germane or relevant to the subject matter contained in the bill be received; nor shall any amendment to any item or clause of such bill be received which does not directly relate thereto; nor shall any restriction on the expenditure of the funds appropriated which proposes a limitation not authorized by law be received if such restriction is to take effect or cease to be effective upon the happening of a contingency; and all questions of relevancy of amendments under this rule, when raised, shall be submitted to the Senate and be decided without debate; and any such amendment or restriction to a general appropriation bill may be laid on the table without prejudice to the bill.
    5. On a point of order made by any Senator, no amendment, the object of which is to provide for a private claim, shall be received to any general appropriation bill, unless it be to carry out the provisions of an existing law or a treaty stipulation, which shall be cited on the face of the amendment.
    6. When a point of order is made against any restriction on the expenditure of funds appropriated in a general appropriation bill on the ground that the restriction violates this rule, the rule shall be construed strictly and, in case of doubt, in favor of the point of order.
    7. Every report on general appropriation bills filed by the Committee on Appropriations shall identify with particularity each recommended amendment which proposes an item of appropriation which is not made to carry out the provisions of an existing law, a treaty stipulation, or an act or resolution previously passed by the Senate during that session.
    8. On a point of order made by any Senator, no general appropriation bill or amendment thereto shall be received or considered if it contains a provision reappropriating unexpended balances of appropriations; except that this provision shall not apply to appropriations in continuation of appropriations for public works on which work has commenced.
    1. A quorum shall consist of a majority of the Senators duly chosen and sworn. 2. No Senator shall absent himself from the service of the Senate without leave. 3. If, at any time during the daily sessions of the Senate, a question shall be raised by any Senator as to the presence of a quorum, the Presiding Officer shall forthwith direct the Secretary to call the roll and shall announce the result, and these proceedings shall be without debate. 4. Whenever upon such roll call it shall be ascertained that a quorum is not present, a majority of the Senators present may direct the Sergeant at Arms to request, and, when necessary, to compel the attendance of the absent Senators, which order shall be determined without debate; and pending its execution, and until a quorum shall be present, no debate nor motion, except to adjourn, or to recess pursuant to a previous order entered by unanimous consent, shall be in order
    1. (a) When a Senator desires to speak, he shall rise and address the Presiding Officer, and shall not proceed until he is recognized, and the Presiding Officer shall recognize the Senator who shall first address him. No Senator shall interrupt another Senator in debate without his consent, and to obtain such consent he shall first address the Presiding Officer, and no Senator shall speak more than twice upon any one question in debate on the same legislative day without leave of the Senate, which shall be determined without debate.
    (b) At the conclusion of the morning hour at the beginning of a new legislative day or after the unfinished business or any pending business has first been laid before the Senate on any calendar day, and until after the duration of three hours of actual session after such business is laid down except as determined to the contrary by unanimous consent or on motion without debate, all debate shall be germane and confined to the specific question then pending before the Senate.
    2. No Senator in debate shall, directly or indirectly, by any form of words impute to another Senator or to other Senators any conduct or motive unworthy or unbecoming a Senator.
    3. No Senator in debate shall refer offensively to any State of the Union.
    4. If any Senator, in speaking or otherwise, in the opinion of the Presiding Officer transgress the rules of the Senate the Presiding Officer shall, either on his own motion or at the request of any other Senator, call him to order; and when a Senator shall be called to order he shall take his seat, and may not proceed without leave of the Senate, which, if granted, shall be upon motion that he be allowed to proceed in order, which motion shall be determined without debate. Any Senator directed by the Presiding Officer to take his seat, and any Senator requesting the Presiding Officer to require a Senator to take his seat, may appeal from the ruling of the Chair, which appeal shall be open to debate.
    5. If a Senator be called to order for words spoken in debate, upon the demand of the Senator or of any other Senator, the exceptionable words shall be taken down in writing, and read at the table for the information of the Senate.
    6. Whenever confusion arises in the Chamber or the galleries, or demonstrations of approval or disapproval are indulged in by the occupants of the galleries, it shall be the duty of the Chair to enforce order on his own initiative and without any point of order being made by a Senator.
    7. No Senator shall introduce to or bring to the attention of the Senate during its sessions any occupant in the galleries of the Senate. No motion to suspend this rule shall be in order, nor may the Presiding Officer entertain any request to suspend it by unanimous consent.
    8. Former Presidents of the United States shall be entitled to address the Senate upon appropriate notice to the Presiding Officer who shall thereupon make the necessary arrangements.
    1. A Member, officer, or employee of the Senate shall not
    receive any compensation, nor shall he permit any compensation
    to accrue to his beneficial interest from any source, the
    receipt or accrual of which would occur by virtue of influence
    improperly exerted from his position as a Member, officer, or
    employee.
    2. No Member, officer, or employee shall engage in any
    outside business or professional activity or employment for
    compensation which is inconsistent or in conflict with the
    conscientious performance of official duties.
    3. No officer or employee shall engage in any outside
    business or professional activity or employment for
    compensation unless he has reported in writing when such
    activity or employment commences and on May 15 of each year
    thereafter so long as such activity or employment continues,
    the nature of such activity or employment to his supervisor.
    The supervisor shall then, in the discharge of his duties, take
    such action as he considers necessary for the avoidance of
    conflict of interest or interference with duties to the Senate.
    4. No Member, officer, or employee shall knowingly use his
    official position to introduce or aid the progress or passage
    of legislation, a principal purpose of which is to further only
    his pecuniary interest, only the pecuniary interest of his
    immediate family, or only the pecuniary interest of a limited
    class of persons or enterprises, when he, or his immediate
    family, or enterprises controlled by them, are members of the
    affected class.
    5. (a) No Member, officer, or employee of the Senate
    compensated at a rate in excess of $25,000 per annum and
    employed for more than ninety days in a calendar year shall (1)
    affiliate with a firm, partnership, association, or corporation
    for the purpose of providing professional services for
    compensation; (2) permit that individual’s name to be used by
    such a firm, partnership, association or corporation; or (3)
    practice a profession for compensation to any extent during
    regular office hours of the Senate office in which employed.
    For the purposes of this paragraph, ``professional services’’
    shall include but not be limited to those which involve a
    fiduciary relationship.
    (b) A Member or an officer or employee whose rate of basic
    pay is equal to or greater than 120 percent of the annual rate
    of basic pay in effect for grade GS-15 of the General Schedule
    shall not—
    (1) receive compensation for affiliating with or
    being employed by a firm, partnership, association,
    corporation, or other entity which provides
    professional services involving a fiduciary
    relationship;
    (2) permit that Member’s, officer’s, or employee’s
    name to be used by any such firm, partnership,
    association, corporation, or other entity;
    (3) receive compensation for practicing a profession
    which involves a fiduciary relationship; or
    (4) receive compensation for teaching, without the
    prior notification and approval of the Select\68\
    Committee on Ethics.

    6. (a) No Member, officer, or employee of the Senate
    compensated at a rate in excess of $25,000 per annum and
    employed for more than ninety days in a calendar year shall
    serve as an officer or member of the board of any publicly held
    or publicly regulated corporation, financial institution, or
    business entity. The preceding sentence shall not apply to
    service of a Member, officer, or employee as—

    (1) an officer or member of the board of an
    organization which is exempt from taxation under
    section 501© of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, if
    such service is performed without compensation;

    (2) an officer or member of the board of an
    institution or organization which is principally
    available to Members, officers, or employees of the
    Senate, or their families, if such service is performed
    without compensation; or

    (3) a member of the board of a corporation,
    institution, or other business entity, if (A) the
    Member, officer, or employee had served continuously as
    a member of the board thereof for at least two years
    prior to his election or appointment as a Member,
    officer, or employee of the Senate, (B) the amount of
    time required to perform such service is minimal, and
    © the Member, officer, or employee is not a member
    of, or a member of the staff of any Senate committee
    which has legislative jurisdiction over any agency of
    the Government charged with regulating the activities
    of the corporation, institution, or other business
    entity.

    (b) A Member or an officer or employee whose rate of basic
    pay is equal to or greater than 120 percent of the annual rate
    of basic pay in effect for grade GS-15 of the General Schedule
    shall not serve for compensation as an officer or member of the
    board of any association, corporation, or other entity.

    7. An employee on the staff of a committee who is
    compensated at a rate in excess of $25,000 per annum and
    employed for more than ninety days in a calendar year shall
    divest himself of any substantial holdings which may be
    directly affected by the actions of the committee for which he
    works, unless the Select Committee, after consultation with the
    employee’s supervisor, grants permission in writing to retain
    such holdings or the employee makes other arrangements
    acceptable to the Select Committee and the employee’s
    supervisor to avoid participation in committee actions where
    there is a conflict of interest, or the appearance thereof.

    8. If a Member, upon leaving office, becomes a
    registered lobbyist under the Federal Regulation of Lobbying
    Act of 1946 or any successor statute, or is employed or
    retained by such a registered lobbyist or an entity that
    employs or retains a registered lobbyist for the purpose of
    influencing legislation, he shall not lobby Members, officers,
    or employees of the Senate for a period of two years after
    leaving office.

    9. (a) If an employee on the staff of a Member, upon
    leaving that position, becomes a registered lobbyist under the
    Federal Regulation of Lobbying Act of 1946 or any successor
    statute, or is employed or retained by such a registered
    lobbyist or an entity that employs or retains a registered
    lobbyist for the purpose of influencing legislation, such
    employee may not lobby the Member for whom he worked or that
    Member’s staff for a period of one year after leaving that
    position.

    (b) If an employee on the staff of a committee, upon
    leaving his position, becomes such a registered lobbyist or is
    employed or retained by such a registered lobbyist or an entity
    that employs or retains a registered lobbyist for the purpose
    of influencing legislation, such employee may not lobby the
    members of the committee for which he worked, or the staff of
    that committee, for a period of one year after leaving his
    position.

    © If an officer of the Senate or an employee on the
    staff of a Member or on the staff of a committee whose rate of
    pay is equal to or greater than 75 percent of the rate of pay
    of a Member and employed at such rate for more than 60 days in
    a calendar year, upon leaving that position, becomes a
    registered lobbyist, or is employed or retained by such a
    registered lobbyist or an entity that employs or retains a
    registered lobbyist for the purpose of influencing legislation,
    such employee may not lobby any Member, officer, or employee of
    the Senate for a period of 1 year after leaving that position.

    10. Paragraphs 8 and 9 shall not apply to contacts with
    the staff of the Secretary of the Senate regarding compliance
    with the lobbying disclosure requirements of the Lobbying
    Disclosure Act of 1995.

    11. (a) If a Member’s spouse or immediate family member is
    a registered lobbyist, or is employed or retained by such a
    registered lobbyist or an entity that hires or retains a
    registered lobbyist for the purpose of influencing legislation,
    the Member shall prohibit all staff employed or supervised by
    that Member (including staff in personal, committee, and
    leadership offices) from having any contact with the Member’s
    spouse or immediate family member that constitutes a lobbying
    contact as defined by section 3 of the Lobbying Disclosure Act
    of 1995 by such person.

    (b) Members and employees on the staff of a Member
    (including staff in personal, committee, and leadership
    offices) shall be prohibited from having any contact that
    constitutes a lobbying contact as defined by section 3 of the
    Lobbying Disclosure Act of 1995 by any spouse of a Member who
    is a registered lobbyist, or is employed or retained by such a
    registered lobbyist.

    © The prohibition in subparagraph (b) shall not apply to
    the spouse of a Member who was serving as a registered lobbyist
    at least 1 year prior to the most recent election of that
    Member to office or at least 1 year prior to his or her
    marriage to that Member.

    12. (a) Except as provided by subparagraph (b), any
    employee of the Senate who is required to file a report
    pursuant to rule XXXIV shall refrain from participating
    personally and substantially as an employee of the Senate in
    any contact with any agency of the executive or judicial branch
    of Government with respect to non-legislative matters affecting
    any non-governmental person in which the employee has a
    significant financial interest.

    (b) Subparagraph (a) shall not apply if an employee first
    advises his supervising authority of his significant financial
    interest and obtains from his employing authority a written
    waiver stating that the participation of the employee is
    necessary. A copy of each such waiver shall be filed with the
    Select Committee.

    13. For purposes of this rule—

    (a) ``employee of the Senate’’ includes an employee
    or individual described in paragraphs 2, 3, and 4© of
    rule XLI;

    (b) an individual who is an employee on the staff of
    a subcommittee of a committee shall be treated as an
    employee on the staff of such committee; and

    © the term ``lobbying’’ means any oral or written
    communication to influence the content or disposition
    of any issue before Congress, including any pending or
    future bill, resolution, treaty, nomination, hearing,
    report, or investigation; but does not include—

    (1) a communication (i) made in the form of
    testimony given before a committee or office of
    the Congress, or (ii) submitted for inclusion
    in the public record, public docket, or public
    file of a hearing; or

    (2) a communication by an individual, acting
    solely on his own behalf, for redress of
    personal grievances, or to express his personal
    opinion.

    14. (a) A Member shall not negotiate or have any
    arrangement concerning prospective private employment until
    after his or her successor has been elected, unless such Member
    files a signed statement with the Secretary of the Senate, for
    public disclosure, regarding such negotiations or arrangements
    not later than 3 business days after the commencement of such
    negotiation or arrangement, including the name of the private
    entity or entities involved in such negotiations or
    arrangements, and the date such negotiations or arrangements
    commenced.

    (b) A Member shall not negotiate or have any arrangement
    concerning prospective employment for a job involving lobbying
    activities as defined by the Lobbying Disclosure Act of 1995
    until after his or her successor has been elected.

    ©(1) An employee of the Senate earning in excess of 75
    percent of the salary paid to a Senator shall notify the Select
    Committee on Ethics that he or she is negotiating or has any
    arrangement concerning prospective private employment.

    (2) The notification under this subparagraph shall be made
    not later than 3 business days after the commencement of such
    negotiation or arrangement.

    (3) An employee to whom this subparagraph applies shall—

    (A) recuse himself or herself from—

    (i) any contact or communication with the
    prospective employer on issues of legislative
    interest to the prospective employer; and

    (ii) any legislative matter in which there is
    a conflict of interest or an appearance of a
    conflict for that employee under this
    subparagraph; and

    (B) notify the Select Committee on Ethics of such
    recusal.

    15. For purposes of this rule—

    (a) a Senator or the Vice President is the supervisor
    of his administrative, clerical, or other assistants;

    (b) a Senator who is the chairman of a committee is
    the supervisor of the professional, clerical, or other
    assistants to the committee except that minority staff
    members shall be under the supervision of the ranking
    minority Senator on the committee;

    © a Senator who is a chairman of a subcommittee
    which has its own staff and financial authorization is
    the supervisor of the professional, clerical, or other
    assistants to the subcommittee except that minority
    staff members shall be under the supervision of the
    ranking minority Senator on the subcommittee;

    (d) the President pro tempore is the supervisor of
    the Secretary of the Senate, Sergeant at Arms and
    Doorkeeper, the Chaplain, the Legislative Counsel, and
    the employees of the Office of the Legislative Counsel;

    (e) the Secretary of the Senate is the supervisor of
    the employees of his office;

    (f) the Sergeant at Arms and Doorkeeper is the
    supervisor of the employees of his office;

    (g) the Majority and Minority Leaders and the
    Majority and Minority Whips are the supervisors of the
    research, clerical, or other assistants assigned to
    their respective offices;

    (h) the Majority Leader is the supervisor of the
    Secretary for the Majority and the Secretary for the
    Majority is the supervisor of the employees of his
    office; and

    (i) the Minority Leader is the supervisor of the
    Secretary for the Minority and the Secretary for the
    Minority is the supervisor of the employees of his
    office.
    1. A Senator or an individual who is a candidate for nomination for election, or election, to the Senate may not use the frank for any mass mailing (as defined in section 3210(a)(6)(E)2 of title 39, United States Code) if such mass mailing is mailed at or delivered to any postal facility less than sixty days immediately before the date of any primary or general election (whether regular, special, or runoff) in which the Senator is a candidate for public office or the individual is a candidate for Senator, unless the candidacy of the Senator in such election is uncontested.
    2. A Senator shall use only official funds of the Senate, including his official Senate allowances, to purchase paper, to print, or to prepare any mass mailing material which is to be sent out under the frank.
    3. (a) When a Senator disseminates information under the frank by a mass mailing (as defined in section 3210(a)(6)(E) of title 39, United States Code), the Senator shall register quarterly with the Secretary of the Senate such mass mailings. Such registration shall be made by filing with the Secretary a copy of the matter mailed and providing, on a form supplied by the Secretary, a description of the group or groups of persons to whom the mass mailing was mailed.
    (b) The Secretary of the Senate shall promptly make available for public inspection and copying a copy of the mail matter registered, and a description of the group or groups of persons to whom the mass mailing was mailed.
    4. Nothing in this rule shall apply to any mailing under the frank which is (a) in direct response to inquiries or requests from persons to whom the matter is mailed; (b) addressed to colleagues in Congress or to government officials (whether Federal, State, or local); or © consists entirely of news releases to the communications media.
    5. The Senate computer facilities shall not be used (a) to store, maintain, or otherwise process any lists or categories of lists of names and addresses identifying the individuals included in such lists as campaign workers or contributors, as members of a political party, or by any other partisan political designation, (b) to produce computer printouts except as authorized by user guides approved by the Committee on Rules and Administration, or © to produce mailing labels for mass mailings, or computer tapes and discs, for use other than in service facilities maintained and operated by the Senate or under contract to the Senate. The Committee on Rules and Administration shall prescribe such regulations not inconsistent with the purposes of this paragraph as it determines necessary to carry out such purposes.
    6. (a) The radio and television studios provided by the Senate or by the House of Representatives may not be used by a Senator or an individual who is a candidate for nomination for election, or election, to the Senate less than sixty days immediately before the date of any primary or general election (whether regular, special, or runoff) in which that Senator is a candidate for public office or that individual is a candidate for Senator, unless the candidacy of the Senator in such election is uncontested.
    (b) This paragraph shall not apply if the facilities are to be used at the request of, and at the expense of, a licensed broadcast organization or an organization exempt from taxation under section 501©(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954.
    1. (a) It shall not be in order to vote on a motion to proceed to consider a bill or joint resolution reported by any committee unless the chairman of the committee of jurisdiction or the Majority Leader or his or her designee certifies-
    (1) that each congressionally directed spending item, limited tax benefit, and limited tariff benefit, if any, in the bill or joint resolution, or in the committee report accompanying the bill or joint resolution, has been identified through lists, charts, or other similar means including the name of each Senator who submitted a request to the committee for each item so identified; and
    (2) that the information in clause (1) has been available on a publicly accessible congressional website in a searchable format at least 48 hours before such vote.
    (b) If a point of order is sustained under this paragraph, the motion to proceed shall be suspended until the sponsor of the motion or his or her designee has requested resumption and compliance with this paragraph has been achieved.
    2. (a) It shall not be in order to vote on a motion to proceed to consider a Senate bill or joint resolution not reported by committee unless the chairman of the committee of jurisdiction or the Majority Leader or his or her designee certifies-
    (1) that each congressionally directed spending item, limited tax benefit, and limited tariff benefit, if any, in the bill or joint resolution, has been identified through lists, charts, or other similar means, including the name of each Senator who submitted a request to the sponsor of the bill or joint resolution for each item so identified; and
    (2) that the information in clause (1) has been available on a publicly accessible congressional website in a searchable format at least 48 hours before such vote.
    (b) If a point of order is sustained under this paragraph, the motion to proceed shall be suspended until the sponsor of the motion or his or her designee has requested resumption and compliance with this paragraph has been achieved.
    3. (a) It shall not be in order to vote on the adoption of a report of a committee of conference unless the chairman of the committee of jurisdiction or the Majority Leader or his or her designee certifies-
    (1) that each congressionally directed spending item, limited tax benefit, and limited tariff benefit, if any, in the conference report, or in the joint statement of managers accompanying the conference report, has been identified through lists, charts, or other means, including the name of each Senator who submitted a request to the committee of jurisdiction for each item so identified; and
    (2) that the information in clause (1) has been available on a publicly accessible congressional website at least 48 hours before such vote.
    (b) If a point of order is sustained under this paragraph, then the conference report shall be set aside.
    4. (a) If during consideration of a bill or joint resolution, a Senator proposes an amendment containing a congressionally directed spending item, limited tax benefit, or limited tariff benefit which was not included in the bill or joint resolution as placed on the calendar or as reported by any committee, in a committee report on such bill or joint resolution, or a committee report of the Senate on a companion measure, then as soon as practicable, the Senator shall ensure that a list of such items (and the name of any Senator who submitted a request to the Senator for each respective item included in the list) is printed in the Congressional Record.
    (b) If a committee reports a bill or joint resolution that includes congressionally directed spending items, limited tax benefits, or limited tariff benefits in the bill or joint resolution, or in the committee report accompanying the bill or joint resolution, the committee shall as soon as practicable identify on a publicly accessible congressional website each such item through lists, charts, or other similar means, including the name of each Senator who submitted a request to the committee for each item so identified. Availability on the Internet of a committee report that contains the information described in this subparagraph shall satisfy the requirements of this subparagraph.
    © To the extent technically feasible, information made available on publicly accessible congressional websites under paragraphs 3 and 4 shall be provided in a searchable format.
    5. For the purpose of this rule-
    (a) the term ``congressionally directed spending item’’ means a provision or report language included primarily at the request of a Senator providing, authorizing, or recommending a specific amount of discretionary budget authority, credit authority, or other spending authority for a contract, loan, loan guarantee, grant, loan authority, or other expenditure with or to an entity, or targeted to a specific State, locality or Congressional district, other than through a statutory or administrative formula-driven or competitive award process;
    (b) the term ``limited tax benefit’’ means-
    (1) any revenue provision that-
    (A) provides a Federal tax deduction, credit, exclusion, or preference to a particular beneficiary or limited group of beneficiaries under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986; and
    (B) contains eligibility criteria that are not uniform in application with respect to potential beneficiaries of such provision;
    © the term ``limited tariff benefit’’ means a provision modifying the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States in a manner that benefits 10 or fewer entities; and
    (d) except as used in subparagraph 8(e), the term ``item`’ when not preceded by ``congressionally directed spending’’ means any provision that is a congressionally directed spending item, a limited tax benefit, or a limited tariff benefit.
    6. (a) A Senator who requests a congressionally directed spending item, a limited tax benefit, or a limited tariff benefit in any bill or joint resolution (or an accompanying report) or in any conference report (or an accompanying joint statement of managers) shall provide a written statement to the chairman and ranking member of the committee of jurisdiction, including-
    (1) the name of the Senator;
    (2) in the case of a congressionally directed spending item, the name and location of the intended recipient or, if there is no specifically intended recipient, the intended location of the activity;
    (3) in the case of a limited tax or tariff benefit, identification of the individual or entities reasonably anticipated to benefit, to the extent known to the Senator;
    (4) the purpose of such congressionally directed spending item or limited tax or tariff benefit; and
    (5) a certification that neither the Senator nor the Senator’s immediate family has a pecuniary interest in the item, consistent with the requirements of paragraph 9.
    (b) With respect to each item included in a Senate bill or joint resolution (or accompanying report) reported by committee or considered by the Senate, or included in a conference report (or joint statement of managers accompanying the conference report) considered by the Senate, each committee of jurisdiction shall make available for public inspection on the Internet the certifications under subparagraph (a)(5) as soon as practicable.
    7. In the case of a bill, joint resolution, or conference report that contains congressionally directed spending items in any classified portion of a report accompanying the measure, the committee of jurisdiction shall, to the greatest extent practicable, consistent with the need to protect national security (including intelligence sources and methods), include on the list required by paragraph 1, 2, or 3 as the case may be, a general program description in unclassified language, funding level, and the name of the sponsor of that congressionally directed spending item.
    8. (a) A Senator may raise a point of order against one or more provisions of a conference report if they constitute new directed spending provisions. The Presiding Officer may sustain the point of order as to some or all of the provisions against which the Senator raised the point of order.
    (b) If the Presiding Officer sustains the point of order as to any of the provisions against which the Senator raised the point of order, then those provisions against which the Presiding Officer sustains the point of order shall be stricken. After all other points of order under this paragraph have been disposed of-
    (1) the Senate shall proceed to consider the question of whether the Senate should recede from its amendment to the House bill, or its disagreement to the amendment of the House, and concur with a further amendment, which further amendment shall consist of only that portion of the conference report that has not been stricken; and
    (2) the question in clause (1) shall be decided under the same debate limitation as the conference report and no further amendment shall be in order.
    © Any Senator may move to waive any or all points of order under this paragraph with respect to the pending conference report by an affirmative vote of three-fifths of the Members, duly chosen and sworn. All motions to waive under this paragraph shall be debatable collectively for not to exceed 1 hour equally divided between the Majority Leader and the Minority Leader or their designees. A motion to waive all points of order under this paragraph shall not be amendable.
    (d) All appeals from rulings of the Chair under this paragraph shall be debatable collectively for not to exceed 1 hour, equally divided between the Majority and the Minority Leader or their designees. An affirmative vote of three-fifths of the Members of the Senate, duly chosen and sworn, shall be required in the Senate to sustain an appeal of the ruling of the Chair under this paragraph.
    (e) The term `new directed spending provision’ as used in this paragraph means any item that consists of a specific provision containing a specific level of funding for any specific account, specific program, specific project, or specific activity, when no specific funding was provided for such specific account, specific program, specific project, or specific activity in the measure originally committed to the conferees by either House.
    9. No Member, officer, or employee of the Senate shall knowingly use his official position to introduce, request, or otherwise aid the progress or passage of congressionally directed spending items, limited tax benefits, or limited tariff benefits a principal purpose of which is to further only his pecuniary interest, only the pecuniary interest of his immediate family, or only the pecuniary interest of a limited class of persons or enterprises, when he or his immediate family, or enterprises controlled by them, are members of the affected class.
    10. Any Senator may move to waive application of paragraph 1, 2, or 3 with respect to a measure by an affirmative vote of three-fifths of the Members, duly chosen and sworn. A motion to waive under this paragraph with respect to a measure shall be debatable for not to exceed 1 hour equally divided between the Majority Leader and the Minority Leader or their designees. With respect to points of order raised under paragraphs 1, 2, or 3, only one appeal from a ruling of the Chair shall be in order, and debate on such an appeal from a ruling of the Chair on such point of order shall be limited to one hour.
    11. Any Senator may move to waive all points of order under this rule with respect to the pending measure or motion by an affirmative vote of three-fifths of the Members, duly chosen and sworn. All motions to waive all points of order with respect to a measure or motion as provided by this paragraph shall be debatable collectively for not to exceed 1 hour equally divided between the Majority Leader and the Minority Leader or their designees. A motion to waive all points of order with respect to a measure or motion as provided by this paragraph shall not be amendable.
    12. Paragraph 1, 2, or 3 of this rule may be waived by joint agreement of the Majority Leader and the Minority Leader of the Senate upon their certification that such waiver is necessary as a result of a significant disruption to Senate facilities or to the availability of the Internet.
    1. The following standing committees shall be appointed at the commencement of each Congress, and shall continue and have the power to act until their successors are appointed, with leave to report by bill or otherwise on matters within their respective jurisdictions:
    (a)(1) Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, to which committee shall be referred all proposed legislation, messages, petitions, memorials, and other matters relating primarily to the following subjects:
    1. Agricultural economics and research.
    2. Agricultural extension services and experiment stations.
    3. Agricultural production, marketing, and stabilization of prices.
    4. Agriculture and agricultural commodities.
    5. Animal industry and diseases.
    6. Crop insurance and soil conservation.
    7. Farm credit and farm security.
    8. Food from fresh waters.
    9. Food stamp programs.
    10. Forestry, and forest reserves and wilderness areas other than those created from the public domain.
    11. Home economics.
    12. Human nutrition.
    13. Inspection of livestock, meat, and agricultural products.
    14. Pests and pesticides.
    15. Plant industry, soils, and agricultural engineering.
    16. Rural development, rural electrification, and watersheds.
    17. School nutrition programs.
    (2) Such committee shall also study and review, on a comprehensive basis, matters relating to food, nutrition, and hunger, both in the United States and in foreign countries, and rural affairs, and report thereon from time to time.
    (b) Committee on Appropriations, to which committee shall be referred all proposed legislation, messages, petitions, memorials, and other matters relating to the following subjects:
    1. Appropriation of the revenue for the support of the Government, except as provided in subparagraph (e).
    2. Rescission of appropriations contained in appropriation Acts (referred to in section 105 of title 1, United States Code).
    3. The amount of new spending authority described in section 401©(2) (A) and (B) of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 which is to be effective for a fiscal year.
    4. New spending authority described in section 401©(2)© of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 provided in bills and resolutions referred to the committee under section 401(b)(2) of that Act (but subject to the provisions of section 401(b)(3) of that Act).
    ©(1) Committee on Armed Services, to which committee shall be referred all proposed legislation, messages, petitions, memorials, and other matters relating to the following subjects:
    1. Aeronautical and space activities peculiar to or primarily associated with the development of weapons systems or military operations.
    2. Common defense.
    3. Department of Defense, the Department of the Army, the Department of the Navy, and the Department of the Air Force, generally.
    4. Maintenance and operation of the Panama Canal, including administration, sanitation, and government of the Canal Zone.
    5. Military research and development.
    6. National security aspects of nuclear energy.
    7. Naval petroleum reserves, except those in Alaska.
    8. Pay, promotion, retirement, and other benefits and privileges of members of the Armed Forces, including overseas education of civilian and military dependents.
    9. Selective service system.
    10. Strategic and critical materials necessary for the common defense.
    (2) Such committee shall also study and review, on a comprehensive basis, matters relating to the common defense policy of the United States, and report thereon from time to time.
    (d)(1) Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, to which committee shall be referred all proposed legislation, messages, petitions, memorials, and other matters relating to the following subjects:
    1. Banks, banking, and financial institutions.
    2. Control of prices of commodities, rents, and services.
    3. Deposit insurance.
    4. Economic stabilization and defense production.
    5. Export and foreign trade promotion.
    6. Export controls.
    7. Federal monetary policy, including Federal Reserve System.
    8. Financial aid to commerce and industry.
    9. Issuance and redemption of notes.
    10. Money and credit, including currency and coinage.
    11. Nursing home construction.
    12. Public and private housing (including veterans’ housing).
    13. Renegotiation of Government contracts.
    14. Urban development and urban mass transit.
    (2) Such committee shall also study and review, on a comprehensive basis, matters relating to international economic policy as it affects United States monetary affairs, credit, and financial institutions; economic growth, urban affairs, and credit, and report thereon from time to time.
    (e)(1) Committee on the Budget, to which committee shall be referred all concurrent resolutions on the budget (as defined in section 3(a)(4) of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974) and all other matters required to be referred to that committee under titles III and IV of that Act, and messages, petitions, memorials, and other matters relating thereto.
    (2) Such committee shall have the duty
    (A) to report the matters required to be reported by it under titles III and IV of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974;
    (B) to make continuing studies of the effect on budget outlays of relevant existing and proposed legislation and to report the results of such studies to the Senate on a recurring basis;
    © to request and evaluate continuing studies of tax expenditures, to devise methods of coordinating tax expenditures, policies, and programs with direct budget outlays, and to report the results of such studies to the Senate on a recurring basis; and
    (D) to review, on a continuing basis, the conduct by the Congressional Budget Office of its functions and duties.
    (f)(1) Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, to which committee shall be referred all proposed legislation, messages, petitions, memorials, and other matters relating to the following subjects:
    1. Coast Guard.
    2. Coastal zone management.
    3. Communications.
    4. Highway safety.
    5. Inland waterways, except construction.
    6. Interstate commerce.
    7. Marine and ocean navigation, safety, and transportation, including navigational aspects of deepwater ports.
    8. Marine fisheries.
    9. Merchant marine and navigation.
    10. Nonmilitary aeronautical and space sciences.
    11. Oceans, weather, and atmospheric activities.
    12. Panama Canal and interoceanic canals generally, except as provided in subparagraph ©.
    13. Regulation of consumer products and services, including testing related to toxic substances, other than pesticides, and except for credit, financial services, and housing.
    14. Regulation of interstate common carriers, including railroads, buses, trucks, vessels, pipelines, and civil aviation.
    15. Science, engineering, and technology research and development and policy.
    16. Sports.
    17. Standards and measurement.
    18. Transportation.
    19. Transportation and commerce aspects of Outer Continental Shelf lands.
    (2) Such committee shall also study and review, on a comprehensive basis, all matters relating to science and technology, oceans policy, transportation, communications, and consumer affairs, and report thereon from time to time.
    (g)(1) Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, to which committee shall be referred all proposed legislation, messages, petitions, memorials, and other matters relating to the following subjects:
    1. Coal production, distribution, and utilization.
    2. Energy policy.
    3. Energy regulation and conservation.
    4. Energy related aspects of deepwater ports.
    5. Energy research and development.
    6. Extraction of minerals from oceans and Outer Continental Shelf lands.
    7. Hydroelectric power, irrigation, and reclamation.
    8. Mining education and research.
    9. Mining, mineral lands, mining claims, and mineral conservation.
    10. National parks, recreation areas, wilderness areas, wild and scenic rivers, historical sites, military parks and battlefields, and on the public domain, preservation of prehistoric ruins and objects of interest.
    11. Naval petroleum reserves in Alaska.
    12. Nonmilitary development of nuclear energy.
    13. Oil and gas production and distribution.
    14. Public lands and forests, including farming and grazing thereon, and mineral extraction therefrom.
    15. Solar energy systems.
    16. Territorial possessions of the United States, including trusteeships.
    (2) Such committee shall also study and review, on a comprehensive basis, matters relating to energy and resources development, and report thereon from time to time.
    (h)(1) Committee on Environment and Public Works, to which committee shall be referred all proposed legislation, messages, petitions, memorials, and other matters relating to the following subjects:
    1. Air pollution.
    2. Construction and maintenance of highways.
    3. Environmental aspects of Outer Continental Shelf lands.
    4. Environmental effects of toxic substances, other than pesticides.
    5. Environmental policy.
    6. Environmental research and development.
    7. Fisheries and wildlife.
    8. Flood control and improvements of rivers and harbors, including environmental aspects of deepwater ports.
    9. Noise pollution.
    10. Nonmilitary environmental regulation and control of nuclear energy.
    11. Ocean dumping.
    12. Public buildings and improved grounds of the United States generally, including Federal buildings in the District of Columbia.
    13. Public works, bridges, and dams.
    14. Regional economic development.
    15. Solid waste disposal and recycling.
    16. Water pollution.
    17. Water resources.
    (2) Such committee shall also study and review, on a comprehensive basis, matters relating to environmental protection and resource utilization and conservation, and report thereon from time to time.
    (i) Committee on Finance, to which committee shall be referred all proposed legislation, messages, petitions, memorials, and other matters relating to the following subjects:
    1. Bonded debt of the United States, except as provided in the Congressional Budget Act of 1974.
    2. Customs, collection districts, and ports of entry and delivery.
    3. Deposit of public moneys.
    4. General revenue sharing.
    5. Health programs under the Social Security Act and health programs financed by a specific tax or trust fund.
    6. National social security.
    7. Reciprocal trade agreements.
    8. Revenue measures generally, except as provided in the Congressional Budget Act of 1974.
    9. Revenue measures relating to the insular possessions.
    10. Tariffs and import quotas, and matters related thereto.
    11. Transportation of dutiable goods.
    (j)(1) Committee on Foreign Relations, to which committee shall be referred all proposed legislation, messages, petitions, memorials, and other matters relating to the following subjects:
    1. Acquisition of land and buildings for embassies and legations in foreign countries.
    2. Boundaries of the United States.
    3. Diplomatic service.
    4. Foreign economic, military, technical, and humanitarian assistance.
    5. Foreign loans.
    6. International activities of the American National Red Cross and the International Committee of the Red Cross.
    7. International aspects of nuclear energy, including nuclear transfer policy.
    8. International conferences and congresses.
    9. International law as it relates to foreign policy.
    10. International Monetary Fund and other international organizations established primarily for international monetary purposes (except that, at the request of the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, any proposed legislation relating to such subjects reported by the Committee on Foreign Relations shall be referred to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs).
    11. Intervention abroad and declarations of war.
    12. Measures to foster commercial intercourse with foreign nations and to safeguard American business interests abroad.
    13. National security and international aspects of trusteeships of the United States.
    14. Oceans and international environmental and scientific affairs as they relate to foreign policy.
    15. Protection of United States citizens abroad and expatriation.
    16. Relations of the United States with foreign nations generally.
    17. Treaties and executive agreements, except reciprocal trade agreements.
    18. United Nations and its affiliated organizations.
    19. World Bank group, the regional development banks, and other international organizations established primarily for development assistance purposes.
    (2) Such committee shall also study and review, on a comprehensive basis, matters relating to the national security policy, foreign policy, and international economic policy as it relates to foreign policy of the United States, and matters relating to food, hunger, and nutrition in foreign countries, and report thereon from time to time.
    (k)(1) Committee on Governmental Affairs, to which committee shall be referred all proposed legislation, messages, petitions, memorials, and other matters relating to the following subjects:
    1. Archives of the United States.
    2. Budget and accounting measures, other than appropriations, except as provided in the Congressional Budget Act of 1974.
    3. Census and collection of statistics, including economic and social statistics.
    4. Congressional organization, except for any part of the matter that amends the rules or orders of the Senate.
    5. Federal Civil Service.
    6. Government information.
    7. Intergovernmental relations.
    8. Municipal affairs of the District of Columbia, except appropriations therefor.
    9. Organization and management of United States nuclear export policy.
    10. Organization and reorganization of the executive branch of the Government.
    11. Postal Service.
    12. Status of officers and employees of the United States, including their classification, compensation, and benefits.
    (2) Such committee shall have the duty of
    (A) receiving and examining reports of the Comptroller General of the United States and of submitting such recommendations to the Senate as it deems necessary or desirable in connection with the subject matter of such reports;
    (B) studying the efficiency, economy, and effectiveness of all agencies and departments of the Government;
    © evaluating the effects of laws enacted to reorganize the legislative and executive branches of the Government; and
    (D) studying the intergovernmental relationships between the United States and the States and municipalities, and between the United States and international organizations of which the United States is a member.
    (l) Committee on the Judiciary, to which committee shall be referred all proposed legislation, messages, petitions, memorials, and other matters relating to the following subjects:
    1. Apportionment of Representatives.
    2. Bankruptcy, mutiny, espionage, and counterfeiting.
    3. Civil liberties.
    4. Constitutional amendments.
    5. Federal courts and judges.
    6. Government information.
    7. Holidays and celebrations.
    8. Immigration and naturalization.
    9. Interstate compacts generally.
    10. Judicial proceedings, civil and criminal, generally.
    11. Local courts in the territories and possessions.
    12. Measures relating to claims against the United States.
    13. National penitentiaries.
    14. Patent Office.
    15. Patents, copyrights, and trademarks.
    16. Protection of trade and commerce against unlawful restraints and monopolies.
    17. Revision and codification of the statutes of the United States.
    18. State and territorial boundary lines.
    (m)(1) Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions, to which committee shall be referred all proposed legislation, messages, petitions, memorials, and other matters relating to the following subjects:
    1. Measures relating to education, labor, health, and public welfare.
    2. Aging.
    3. Agricultural colleges.
    4. Arts and humanities.
    5. Biomedical research and development.
    6. Child labor.
    7. Convict labor and the entry of goods made by convicts into interstate commerce.
    8. Domestic activities of the American National Red Cross.
    9. Equal employment opportunity.
    10. Gallaudet College, Howard University, and Saint Elizabeths Hospital.
    11. Individuals with disabilities.
    12. Labor standards and labor statistics.
    13. Mediation and arbitration of labor disputes.
    14. Occupational safety and health, including the welfare of miners.
    15. Private pension plans.
    16. Public health.
    17. Railway labor and retirement.
    18. Regulation of foreign laborers.
    19. Student loans.
    20. Wages and hours of labor.
    (2) Such committee shall also study and review, on a comprehensive basis, matters relating to health, education and training, and public welfare, and report thereon from time to time.
    (n)(1) Committee on Rules and Administration, to which committee shall be referred all proposed legislation, messages, petitions, memorials, and other matters relating to the following subjects:
    1. Administration of the Senate Office Buildings and the Senate wing of the Capitol, including the assignment of office space.
    2. Congressional organization relative to rules and procedures, and Senate rules and regulations, including floor and gallery rules.
    3. Corrupt practices.
    4. Credentials and qualifications of Members of the Senate, contested elections, and acceptance of incompatible offices.
    5. Federal elections generally, including the election of the President, Vice President, and Members of the Congress.
    6. Government Printing Office, and the printing and correction of the Congressional Record, as well as those matters provided for under rule XI.
    7. Meetings of the Congress and attendance of Members.
    8. Payment of money out of the contingent fund of the Senate or creating a charge upon the same (except that any resolution relating to substantive matter within the jurisdiction of any other standing committee of the Senate shall be first referred to such committee).
    9. Presidential succession.
    10. Purchase of books and manuscripts and erection of monuments to the memory of individuals.
    11. Senate Library and statuary, art, and pictures in the Capitol and Senate Office Buildings.
    12. Services to the Senate, including the Senate restaurant.
    13. United States Capitol and congressional office buildings, the Library of Congress, the Smithsonian Institution (and the incorporation of similar institutions), and the Botanic Gardens.
    (2) Such committee shall also
    (A) make a continuing study of the organization and operation of the Congress of the United States and shall recommend improvements in such organization and operation with a view toward strengthening the Congress, simplifying its operations, improving its relationships with other branches of the United States Government, and enabling it better to meet its responsibilities under the Constitution of the United States;
    (B) identify any court proceeding or action which, in the opinion of the Committee, is of vital interest to the Congress as a constitutionally established institution of the Federal Government and call such proceeding or action to the attention of the Senate; and develop, implement, and update as necessary a strategy planning process and a strategic plan for the functional and technical infrastructure support of the Senate and provide oversight over plans developed by Senate officers and others in accordance with the strategic planning process.
    (o)(1) Committee on Small Business, to which committee shall be referred all proposed legislation, messages, petitions, memorials, and other matters relating to the Small Business Administration.
    (2) Any proposed legislation reported by such committee which relates to matters other than the functions of the Small Business Administration shall, at the request of the chairman of any standing committee having jurisdiction over the subject matter extraneous to the functions of the Small Business Administration, be considered and reported by such standing committee prior to its consideration by the Senate; and likewise measures reported by other committees directly relating to the Small Business Administration shall, at the request of the chairman of the Committee on Small Business, be referred to the Committee on Small Business for its consideration of any portions of the measure dealing with the Small Business Administration, and be reported by this committee prior to its consideration by the Senate.
    (3) Such committee shall also study and survey by means of research and investigation all problems of American small business enterprises, and report thereon from time to time.
    (p) Committee on Veterans’ Affairs, to which committee shall be referred all proposed legislation, messages, petitions, memorials, and other matters relating to the following subjects:
    1. Compensation of veterans.
    2. Life insurance issued by the Government on account of service in the Armed Forces.
    3. National cemeteries.
    4. Pensions of all wars of the United States, general and special.
    5. Readjustment of servicemen to civil life.
    6. Soldiers’ and sailors’ civil relief.
    7. Veterans’ hospitals, medical care and treatment of veterans.
    8. Veterans’ measures generally.
    9. Vocational rehabilitation and education of veterans.
    2. Except as otherwise provided by paragraph 4 of this rule, each of the following standing committees shall consist of the number of Senators set forth in the following table on the line on which the name of that committee appears:

    Committee / Members
    Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry / 18
    Appropriations / 28
    Armed Services / 18
    Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs / 18
    Commerce, Science, and Transportation / 20
    Energy and Natural Resources / 20
    Environment and Public Works / 18
    Finance / 20
    Foreign Relations / 18
    Governmental Affairs / 16
    Judiciary / 18
    H.E.L.P. / 18
    3.(a) Except as otherwise provided by paragraph 4 of this rule, each of the following standing committees shall consist of the number of Senators set forth in the following table on the line on which the name of that committee appears:

    Committee / Members
    Budget / 22
    Rules and Administration / 16
    Veterans’ Affairs / 12
    Small Business / 18
    b) Each of the following committees and joint committees shall consist of the number of Senators (or Senate members, in the case of a joint committee) set forth in the following table on the line on which the name of that committee appears:

    Committee / Members
    Aging / 18
    Intelligence / 19
    Joint Economic Committee / 10
    © Each of the following committees and joint committees shall consist of the number of Senators (or Senate members, in the case of a joint committee) set forth in the following table on the line on which the name of that committee appears:

    Committee / Members
    Ethics / 6
    Indian Affairs / 14
    Joint Committee on Taxation / 5
    4.(a) Except as otherwise provided by this paragraph
    (1) each Senator shall serve on two and no more committees listed in paragraph 2; and
    (2) each Senator may serve on only one committee listed in paragraph 3 (a) or (b).
    (b)(1) Each Senator may serve on not more than three subcommittees of each committee (other than the Committee on Appropriations) listed in paragraph 2 of which he is a member.
    (2) Each Senator may serve on not more than two subcommittees of a committee listed in paragraph 3 (a) or (b) of which he is a member.
    (3) Notwithstanding subparagraphs (1) and (2), a Senator serving as chairman or ranking minority member of a standing, select, or special committee of the Senate or joint committee of the Congress may serve ex officio, without vote, as a member of any subcommittee of such committee or joint committee.
    (4) No committee of the Senate may establish any subunit of that committee other than a subcommittee, unless the Senate by resolution has given permission therefor. For purposes of this subparagraph, any subunit of a joint committee shall be treated as a subcommittee.
    © By agreement entered into by the majority leader and the minority leader, the membership of one or more standing committees may be increased temporarily from time to time by such number or numbers as may be required to accord to the majority party a majority of the membership of all standing committees. When any such temporary increase is necessary to accord to the majority party a majority of the membership of all standing committees, members of the majority party in such number as may be required for that purpose may serve as members of three standing committees listed in paragraph 2. No such temporary increase in the membership of any standing committee under this subparagraph shall be continued in effect after the need therefor has ended. No standing committee may be increased in membership under this subparagraph by more than two members in excess of the number prescribed for that committee by paragraph 2 or 3(a).
    (d) A Senator may serve as a member of any joint committee of the Congress the Senate members of which are required by law to be appointed from a standing committee of the Senate of which he is a member, and service as a member of any such joint committee shall not be taken into account for purposes of subparagraph (a)(2).
    (e)(1) No Senator shall serve at any time as chairman of more than one standing, select, or special committee of the Senate or joint committee of the Congress, except that a Senator may serve as chairman of any joint committee of the Congress having jurisdiction with respect to a subject matter which is directly related to the jurisdiction of a standing committee of which he is chairman.
    (2) No Senator shall serve at any time as chairman of more than one subcommittee of each standing, select, or special committee of the Senate or joint committee of the Congress of which he is a member.
    (3) A Senator who is serving as the chairman of a committee listed in paragraph 2 may serve at any time as the chairman of only one subcommittee of all committees listed in paragraph 2 of which he is a member and may serve at any time as the chairman of only one subcommittee of each committee listed in paragraph 3 (a) or (b) of which he is a member. A Senator who is serving as the chairman of a committee listed in paragraph 3 (a) or (b) may not serve as the chairman of any subcommittee of that committee, and may serve at any time as the chairman of only one subcommittee of each committee listed in paragraph 2 of which he is a member. Any other Senator may serve as the chairman of only one subcommittee of each committee listed in paragraph 2, 3(a), or 3(b) of which he is a member.
    (f) A Senator serving on the Committee on Rules and Administration may not serve on any joint committee of the Congress unless the Senate members thereof are required by law to be appointed from the Committee on Rules and Administration, or unless such Senator served on the Committee on Rules and Administration and the Joint Committee on Taxation on the last day of the Ninetyeighth Congress.
    (g) A Senator who on the day preceding the effective date of title I of the Committee System Reorganization Amendments of 1977 was serving as the chairman or ranking minority member of the Committee on the District of Columbia or the Committee on Post Office and Civil Service may serve on the Committee on Governmental Affairs in addition to serving on two other standing committees listed in paragraph 2. At the request of any such Senator, he shall be appointed to serve on such committee but, while serving on such committee and two other standing committees listed in paragraph 2, he may not serve on any committee listed in paragraph 3 (a) or (b) other than the Committee on Rules and Administration. The preceding provisions of this subparagraph shall apply with respect to any Senator only so long as his service as a member of the Committee on Governmental Affairs is continuous after the date on which the appointment of the majority and minority members of the Committee on Governmental Affairs is initially completed.
    1. No officer or employee of the Senate may receive, solicit, be a custodian of, or distribute any funds in connection with any campaign for the nomination for election, or the election, of any individual to be a Member of the Senate or to any other Federal office. This prohibition does not apply to three assistants to a Senator, at least one of whom is in Washington, District of Columbia, who have been designated by that Senator to perform any of the functions described in the first sentence of this paragraph and who are compensated at an annual rate in excess of $10,000 if such designation has been made in writing and filed with the Secretary of the Senate and if each such assistant files a financial statement in the form provided under rule XXXIV for each year during which he is designated under this rule. The Majority Leader and the Minority Leader may each designate an employee of their respective leadership office staff as one of the 3 designees referred to in the second sentence. The Secretary of the Senate shall make the designation available for public inspection.
    2. For purposes of the Senate Code of Official Conduct –
    (a) an employee of the Senate includes any employee whose salary is disbursed by the Secretary of the Senate; and
    (b) the compensation of an officer or employee of the Senate who is a reemployed annuitant shall include amounts received by such officer or employee as an annuity, and such amounts shall be treated as disbursed by the Secretary of the Senate.
    3. Before approving the utilization by any committee of the Senate of the services of an officer or employee of the Government in accordance with paragraph 4 of rule XXVII or with an authorization provided by Senate resolution, the Committee on Rules and Administration shall require such officer or employee to agree in writing to comply with the Senate Code of Official Conduct in the same manner and to the same extent as an employee of the Senate. Any such officer or employee shall, for purposes of such Code, be treated as an employee of the Senate receiving compensation disbursed by the Secretary of the Senate in an amount equal to the amount of compensation he is receiving as an officer or employee of the Government.
    4. No Member, officer, or employee of the Senate shall utilize the fulltime services of an individual for more than ninety days in a calendar year in the conduct of official duties of any committee or office of the Senate (including a Member’s office) unless such individual
    (a) is an officer or employee of the Senate,
    (b) is an officer or employee of the Government (other than the Senate), or
    © agrees in writing to comply with the Senate Code of Official Conduct in the same manner and to the same extent as an employee of the Senate. Any individual to whom subparagraph © applies shall, for purposes of such Code, be treated as an employee of the Senate receiving compensation disbursed by the Secretary of the Senate in an amount equal to the amount of compensation which such individual is receiving from any source for performing such services.
    5. In exceptional circumstances for good cause shown, the Select Committee on Ethics may waive the applicability of any provision of the Senate Code of Official Conduct to an employee hired on a per diem basis.
    6. (a) The supervisor of an individual who performs services for any Member, committee, or office of the Senate for a period in excess of four weeks and who receives compensation therefor from any source other than the United States Government shall report to the Select Committee on Ethics with respect to the utilization of the services of such individual.
    (b) A report under subparagraph (a) shall be made with respect to an individual
    (1) when such individual begins performing services described in such subparagraph;
    (2) at the close of each calendar quarter while such individual is performing such services; and
    (3) when such individual ceases to perform such services.
    Each such report shall include the identity of the source of the compensation received by such individual and the amount or rate of compensation paid by such source.
    © No report shall be required under subparagraph (a) with respect to an individual who normally performs services for a Member, committee, or office for less than eight hours a week.
    (d) For purposes of this paragraph, the supervisor of an individual shall be determined under paragraph 11 of rule XXXVII.
    Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2008 – Department of Defense – Title I: Military Personnel – Appropriates funds for FY2008 for active-duty and reserve personnel in the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Air Force, and for National Guard personnel in the Army and Air Force.
    Title II: Operation and Maintenance – Appropriates funds for FY2008 for operation and maintenance (O&M) for the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Air Force, the defense agencies, the reserve components, and the Army and Air National Guard. Appropriates funds for: (1) the United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces; (2) environmental restoration for the military departments, the Department of Defense (DOD), and at formerly used defense sites; (3) overseas humanitarian, disaster, and civic aid; and (4) former Soviet Union threat reduction.
    Title III: Procurement – Appropriates funds for FY2008 for procurement by the Armed Forces of aircraft, missiles, weapons, tracked combat vehicles, ammunition, shipbuilding and conversion, and other procurement. Appropriates funds for: (1) defense-wide procurement; (2) National Guard and reserve equipment; and (3) certain procurements under the Defense Production Act of 1950.
    Title IV: Research, Development, Test and Evaluation – Appropriates funds for FY2008 for research, development, test and evaluation (RDT&E) by the Armed Forces and defense agencies. Appropriates funds for the Director of Operational Test and Evaluation.
    Title V: Revolving and Management Funds – Appropriates funds for: (1) the Defense Working Capital Funds; and (2) programs under the National Defense Sealift Fund.
    Title VI: Other Department of Defense Programs – Appropriates funds for: (1) the Defense Health Program; (2) the destruction of lethal chemical agents and munitions; (3) drug interdiction and counter-drug activities, defense; (4) the Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Fund; and (5) the Office of the Inspector General.
    Title VII: Related Agencies – Appropriates funds for the: (1) Central Intelligence Agency Retirement and Disability System Fund; and (2) Intelligence Community Management Account.
    Title VIII: General Provisions – Specifies authorized, restricted, and prohibited uses of authorized funds.
    (Sec. 8006) Requires a report from DOD to the defense committees to establish the baseline for application of FY2008 reprogramming and transfer authorities.
    (Sec. 8010) Authorizes procurement funds to be used for a multiyear procurement contract for: (1) the Army CH-47 Chinook helicopter; (2) M1A2 Abrams system enhancement package upgrades; (3) M2A3/M3A3 Bradley upgrades; and (4) the Virginia class submarine.
    (Sec. 8012) Prohibits, during FY2008, the management by end strengths of DOD civilian personnel.
    (Sec. 8023) Authorizes DOD to incur obligations of up to $350 million for DOD military compensation, construction projects, and supplies and services in anticipation of receipts of contributions from the government of Kuwait.
    (Sec. 8025) Prohibits the use of funds from this Act to establish a new federally funded research and development center (FFRDC). Limits the federal compensation to be paid to FFRDC members or consultants. Prohibits the use of FY2008 funds for new building construction, cost-sharing payments for projects funded by government grants, absorption of cost overruns, or certain charitable contributions. Limits the staff years of technical effort that may be funded for FFRDCs from FY2008 funds. Reduces, by $57.725 million, the total amount appropriated in this Act for FFRDCs.
    (Sec. 8026) Provides Buy American requirements with respect to the DOD procurement of carbon, alloy, or armor steel plating.
    (Sec. 8029) Requires the Secretary of Defense (Secretary) to report to Congress on the amount of DOD purchases from foreign entities in FY2008.
    (Sec. 8032) Authorizes the Secretary of the Air Force to convey to Indian tribes located in North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, and Minnesota relocatable military housing units currently located at Grand Forks and Minot Air Force Bases that are excess to the needs of the Air Force. Requires the Operation Walking Shield Program to resolve any housing unit conflicts arising after such conveyance.
    (Sec. 8038) Makes specified DOD O&M funds available only for the mitigation of environmental impacts on Indian lands resulting from DOD activities.
    (Sec. 8039) Prohibits the use of funds: (1) by a DOD entity without compliance with the Buy American Act; (2) to establish additional field operating agencies of DOD elements, except for those funded within the National Foreign Intelligence Program and Army agencies established to eliminate, mitigate, or counter the effects of improvised explosive devices; (3) for assistance to the Democratic People’s Republic of North Korea, unless specifically appropriated for such purpose; and (4) to reduce the civilian medical and medical support personnel assigned to military treatment facilities below the September 30, 2003, level.
    (Sec. 8043) Rescinds specified funds from various accounts under prior defense appropriations Acts.
    (Sec. 8048) Prohibits the transfer to any other department or agency, except as specifically provided in an appropriations law, of funds available to DOD or the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) for drug interdiction or counter-drug activities.
    (Sec. 8052) Prohibits current fiscal year DOD funds from being obligated or expended to transfer to another nation or international organization defense articles or services for use in any United Nations (UN) peacekeeping or peace enforcement operation, or for any other international peacekeeping, peace enforcement, or humanitarian assistance operation, unless specified congressional committees are given 15 days’ advance notice.
    (Sec. 8059) Makes DOD funds available to provide transportation of medical supplies and equipment to: (1) American Samoa; and (2) the Indian Health Service in conjunction with a civil-military project.
    (Sec. 8060) Prohibits funds from being used to approve or license the sale of the F-22 advanced tactical fighter to any foreign government.
    (Sec. 8061) Authorizes the Secretary, on a case-by-case basis, to waive limitations on the procurement of defense items from a foreign country if: (1) the Secretary determines that such limitations would invalidate cooperative or reciprocal trade agreements for the procurement of defense items; and (2) such country does not discriminate against the same or similar defense items procured in the United States for that country. Provides exceptions.
    (Sec. 8062) Prohibits the use of appropriated funds to support a unit of the security forces of a foreign country if credible information exists that such unit has committed a gross violation of human rights, unless all necessary corrective steps have been taken. Requires the monitoring of such information. Authorizes the Secretary to waive such prohibition under extraordinary circumstances (requiring a report to the defense committees on any such waiver).
    (Sec. 8067) Provides for the crediting during the current fiscal year of certain refunds attributable to the use of government travel or purchase cards or refunds for travel arranged by a government-contracted travel management center.
    (Sec. 8068) Prohibits appropriated funds from being used for a mission critical or mission essential financial management information technology system that is not registered with the DOD Chief Information Officer. Prohibits such a system from receiving a Milestone A or B approval, or full rate production approval, until the Chief Information Officer certifies to the defense committees that the system is being developed in accordance with the Clinger-Cohen Act of 1996.
    (Sec. 8070) Authorizes members of the National Guard performing full-time duty to support ground-based elements of the National Ballistic Missile Defense System.
    (Sec. 8071) Prohibits appropriated funds from being used to transfer to any nongovernmental entity specified armor-piercing ammunition, except to an entity performing demilitarization services for DOD.
    (Sec. 8072) Authorizes the Chief of the National Guard Bureau to waive payment for the lease of non-excess DOD personal property to certain, youth, social, or fraternal nonprofit organizations.
    (Sec. 8079) Authorizes the Secretary to carry out a program to distribute surplus DOD dental and medical equipment to Indian Health Service facilities and federally-qualified health centers.
    (Sec. 8080) Earmarks specified RDT&E funds for producing Arrow missile components in the United States and Arrow missile components and missiles in Israel to meet Israel’s defense requirements.
    (Sec. 8081) Makes Navy shipbuilding and conversion funds available to fund prior-year shipbuilding cost increases, allocating such funds among specified naval accounts.
    (Sec. 8086) Appropriates funds for a grant by the Secretary of the Army to facilitate access by veterans to opportunities for skilled employment in the construction industry.
    (Sec. 8087) Appropriates funds for assistance to public schools that have unusually high concentrations of special needs military dependents enrolled.
    (Sec. 8088) Directs: (1) DOD and the Army to make future budgetary and programming plans to fully finance the Non-Line of Sight Objective Force cannon and ammunition resupply capability in order to field such system in FY2010; and (2) the Army to ensure that budgetary and programmatic plans will provide for no fewer than seven Stryker Brigade Combat Teams.
    (Sec. 8089) Appropriates funds to DOD for nine specified grants by the Secretary.
    (Sec. 8091) Requires the FY2009 budget to include separate budget justification documents for costs of U.S. Armed Forces’ participation in contingency operations for the military personnel, O&M, and procurement accounts.
    (Sec. 8092) Prohibits funds from being used for RDT&E, procurement, or deployment of nuclear armed interceptors of a missile defense system.
    (Sec. 8094) Prohibits the availability of funds for integration of foreign intelligence information unless such information has been lawfully collected and processed during the conduct of authorized foreign intelligence activities.
    (Sec. 8095) Requires Ready Reserve members who are called or ordered to active duty in time of national emergency to be notified of their expected mobilization period at the time they are called or ordered. Allows the Secretary to waive such requirement in order to respond to a national security emergency or meet dire operational requirements.
    (Sec. 8097) Reduces by $506.9 million the total amount appropriated in titles II, III, and IV of this Act, for contractor efficiencies.
    (Sec. 8099) Authorizes the Secretary to present promotional materials, including a U.S. flag and other recognition items, to any member who participates in Operations Enduring Freedom or Iraqi Freedom, in conjunction with any week-long national observation and day of national celebration.
    (Sec. 8101) Earmarks funds for the operations and development of training and technology for the Joint Interagency Training and Education Center and affiliated Center for National Response at the Memorial Tunnel.
    (Sec. 8104) Reduces by $1.353 billion the total amount appropriated in titles II through V of this Act, to reflect savings from revised economic assumptions.
    (Sec. 8111) Directs the Secretary to create a major force program category for space for DOD’s future years defense program.
    (Sec. 8112) Appropriates funds to the Tanker Replacement Transfer Fund in connection with a tanker acquisition program.
    (Sec. 8113) Prohibits the use of funds to: (1) establish any military installation or base for the permanent stationing of U.S. Armed Forces in Iraq; or (2) exercise U.S. control over any oil resource of Iraq.
    (Sec. 8114) Prohibits the use of funds in contravention of specified laws or regulations promulgated to implement the United Nations Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment.
    (Sec. 8116) Requires any request for funds for a fiscal year after 2008 for an ongoing military operation overseas, including operations in Afghanistan and Iraq, to be included in the annual budget of the President for that fiscal year.
    (Sec. 8118) Authorizes the transfer of specified funds to the Secretary of the Interior for construction expenses at the USS ARIZONA Memorial Museum and Visitors Center.
    (Sec. 8119) Requires DOD to complete work on the destruction of the U.S. stockpile of lethal chemical agents and munitions, including those stored at Blue Grass Army Depot, Kentucky, and Pueblo Chemical Depot, Colorado, by the deadline established by the Chemical Weapons Convention, and in no circumstances later than December 30, 2017. Requires a report from the Secretary to specified congressional leaders and the defense committees, at the end of 2007 and every 180 days afterwards until compliance, on DOD progress toward such stockpile destruction.
    (Sec. 8120) Amends the Senate Rules to state that it is not a gift for a Member (or a Senate employee making a reservation for that Member) to make more than one reservation on scheduled flights with participating airlines when such action assists the Member in conducting official business.
    (Sec. 8121) Directs the Secretary to establish and maintain on the DOD Internet homepage a direct link to the website of the DOD Office of the Inspector General.
    (Sec. 8122) Appropriates funds for the Mine Resistant Ambush Protected Vehicle Fund, for use in connection with research and development, upgrades, and procurement of mine resistant ambush protected vehicles. Directs the Secretary, after five days’ prior notification to the defense committees, to transfer such funds to O&M, procurement, and RDT&E appropriations for such purposes. Designates such funds as an emergency requirement.
    Division B: Further Continuing Appropriations, 2008 – (Sec. 101) Amends the joint resolution making continuing appropriations for FY2008 to extend the November 16, 2007, expiration date to December 14, 2007.
    (Sec. 102) Amends such joint resolution to add provisions which: (1) continue through the December 14, 2007, date the budget authority of the National Dairy Promotion and Research Board under the Dairy Production Stabilization Act of 1983; (2) provide amounts for the rate of operations for the Department of Commerce’s periodic censuses and programs; (3) designate certain obligations as emergency requirements; (4) appropriate a specified amount for Charles Davis, widower of JoAnn Davis, late a Representative from Virginia; (5) provide amounts and rates of operations for specified accounts and programs within the Department of Veterans Affairs’ Veterans Health Administration; (6) continue through the December 14, 2007, date the authority of the Secretary of Transportation to provide insurance and reinsurance for certain aircraft and related property placed into federal service; (7) make additional appropriations for the Department of Agriculture’s Forest Service and the Department of the Interior’s Bureau of Land Management for wildfire management; (8) make additional appropriations for the Department of Homeland Security’s Federal Emergency Management Agency for disaster relief; and (9) make additional appropriations for the Department of Housing and Urban Development’s Community Development Fund for grants to Louisiana under that state’s Road Home program.

  • Comm_reply
    Superpower 07/19/2010 12:00pm

    What, you couldn’t find a publisher?

  • Anonymous 09/15/2008 9:31am

    House plans vote on $50 bln to stimulate economy 1 hour, 17 minutes ago

    WASHINGTON (Reuters) – The House of Representatives plans to debate legislation this month to inject another $50 billion of stimulus into the faltering U.S. economy, mostly with the goal of creating new jobs, a senior House Democratic aide said on Monday.

    Amid fears of wider economic damage from turmoil on Wall Street, the roughly $50 billion would aim to spark needed road, bridge and other construction projects that help create jobs, with details still being worked out, the aide said.

    The money also would be used to help low-income families pay winter heating bills and to extend unemployment benefits.

    Early this year, a $168 billion economic stimulus measure was enacted.

    Democrats also hope to include in this second economic stimulus measure more aid to states that are facing higher Medicaid health care costs.

    “Jobs, jobs, jobs. That’s what it’s about,” according to the aide, who said the bulk of the stimulus money would be for creating new jobs.

    Sen. Carl Levin, a Michigan Democrat, also told reporters that an economic stimulus plan he wants the Senate to pass is “in the ballpark” of $50 billion.

    The Bush administration and Congress worked together to pass the first economic stimulus law. So far, the White House is resisting a second one.

    (Reporting by Richard Cowan and Kevin Drawbaugh, Editing by Sandra Maler)

  • Anonymous 09/15/2008 9:37am
    Link Reply
    + -3

    Please filter the posts that are off the subject. OOT changed personalities again and started trolling.

    As for the above “Kim” post it’s an empty threat from OOT.

  • Anonymous 09/15/2008 10:11am
    Link Reply
    + -1

    Would someone still be able to claim unemployment benefits if they took a training course/class given through the unemployment office?

  • Anonymous 09/15/2008 10:12am
    Link Reply
    + -1

    AnonNJ(1): The bill calls for an additional 7 weeks on top of the 13 we got (total of 20 wks); AnonNJ(2): You’re lucky you got another benefit year. My year also ended the end of August, but because I didn’t work since, I was denied the new year. Did you work after your benefits ended? Prior to being laid off, I had worked full time for 30+ years.

  • Anonymous 09/15/2008 10:26am
    Link Reply
    + -3

    The stock market is crashing.

  • Moderated Comment

  • Anonymous 09/15/2008 11:36am

    Good for you Jackie, you were almost suckered in to the treachery! Pay no attention to the above post and you don’t need to explain yourself at all. Even the so-called person named Kim is suspect.

    Now you really understand you’re dealing with a person who is dangerous. OOT has exhibited a number of personalities on this forum. I think, even the more angry racist rants belong to OOT.

    Be safe, play it safe, block the email addresses or even the domain names from him. A lot of us have been watching what OOT has been doing for months.

    Chin up! Expose him completely if need be! He’ll filter this with his many poster names I’m sure. He’s paranoid and an extremely unstable person.

  • Comm_reply
    HearOurVoices 09/15/2008 11:52am

    But before he and they do
    How Do I block??
    I cant find a way to block on comcast.I looked last night.
    Now Ive just opened up that fact and if Kim can do what she says she is trained to do I’m toast arnt I

  • HearOurVoices 09/15/2008 11:53am

    I feel so damned stupid

  • HearOurVoices 09/15/2008 11:53am

    I need to get rid of this one too huh??

  • Anonymous 09/15/2008 12:13pm

    Call your ISP and ask. Also ask what you do if you start receiving any unwanted emails. They can be tracked and dealt with.

  • Moderated Comment

  • Moderated Comment

  • Anonymous 09/15/2008 12:35pm

    Bad enough we’re unemployed and suffering…..this is truly sad.

  • Anonymous 09/15/2008 12:41pm
    Link Reply
    + -2

    Jackie, you sound like a nice person…but this is the net.
    Your better off leaving this forum or if choose to stay do what they do..used more then one ID or just be Anonymous.

    All read everyday what can happen to people when they get involved too much with another on the net…be very careful!


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