Redress for Japanese Americans/ U.S. legislation

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This article series was part of the spring 2007 Student Editor Program - Asian Pacific Americans and American Public Policy. For more information about how to use this site in the classroom, see the main informational page or contact Congresspedia Managing Editor Conor Kenny at File:Conoremail.png.

This article is part of Congresspedia’s coverage of Japanese Americans and Japanese Latin Americans and U.S. Policy During World War II

The series was part of the Student Editor Program - Asian Pacific Americans and American Public Policy.


Japanese-American redress efforts officially began when President Ford repealed Executive Order 9066 and acknowledged the wrongdoings of the United States government in a public apology. To many Japanese-Americans, this was the starting point of a long healing process. Various acts were passed by the U.S. government to aid in this process.

Contents

Early Redress Efforts

  • April 24, 1946: Evacuation Claims Commission – Allowed Japanese-American evacuees to present claims against the U.S. for their losses due to internment.[1]
  • July 2, 1948: Japanese-American Claims Act – Suggested compensation for losses during internment. Valued compensation at $38 million for 23,000 claims. [2]

Timeline of Japanese-American Redress Legislation

  • 1976: Proclamation 4417, “An American Promise” - President Gerald Ford signed Proclamation 4417 on February 19, 1976, which formally terminated Executive Order 9066.[3]
    • Recommendations of the CWRIC:
      • Recognition of injustices and apology.
      • Pardon those who were convicted of disobeying rules put in place during internment.
      • Executive agencies to aid in restitution of losses during internment.
      • Establish monetary funds and foundations to aid in redress.
      • Provide a sum of $20,000 to each survivor.[5]
  • 1988: Civil Liberties Act of 1988 - President Ronald Reagan signed The Civil Liberties Act of 1988. Under the act, $20,000 was to be given to each internee of Japanese descent, whether they were a U.S. citizen or permanent resident alien.[6]
  • 1993: Fulfillment of Civil Liberties Act - The Civil Liberties Act of 1988 was finally fulfilled on October 1, 1993 when President Bill Clinton sent a letter of apology to Japanese-American internment survivors along with reparations checks of $20,000 each.[7]
  • May 10, 1994: Civil Liberties Act expanded – The Department of Justice recommended expanding the redress available under the Civil Liberties Act of 1988 to Japanese-American minors. [8]

Articles and resources

Related SourceWatch/Congresspedia resources

References

  1. Eric K. Yamamoto et al., Race, Rights and Reparation, Aspen Publishers, 2001.
  2. The Harry S. Truman Library, "The War Relocation Authority and The Incarceration of Japanese-Americans During World War II: 1946."
  3. The Harry S. Truman Library, "The War Relocation Authority and The Incarceration of Japanese-Americans During World War II: 1948."
  4. John Woolley and Gerhard Peters, "The American Presidency Project." Santa Barbara, CA: University of California (hosted), Gerhard Peters (database).
  5. Eric K. Yamamoto et al., Race, Rights and Reparation, Aspen Publishers, 2001.
  6. Eric K. Yamamoto et al., Race, Rights and Reparation, Aspen Publishers, 2001.
  7. Eric K. Yamamoto et al., Race, Rights and Reparation, Aspen Publishers, 2001.
  8. Walter Dellinger, "ELIGIBILITY OF INVOLUNTARY WARTIME RELOCATEES TO JAPAN FOR REDRESS UNDER THE CIVIL LIBERTIES ACT OF 1988 -- MEMORANDUM FOR DEVAL PATRICK ASSISTANT ATTORNEY GENERAL CIVIL RIGHTS DIVISION," U.S. Department of Justice, May 10, 1994.

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