S.752 - Fair Elections Now Act
A bill to reform the financing of Senate elections, and for other purposes.
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SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE; TABLE OF CONTENTS.
TITLE I--FAIR ELECTIONS FINANCING OF SENATE ELECTION CAMPAIGNS
Subtitle A--Fair Elections Financing Program
‘TITLE V--FAIR ELECTIONS FINANCING OF SENATE ELECTION CAMPAIGNS
‘Subtitle A--General Provisions
‘Subtitle B--Eligibility and Certification
‘Subtitle D--Administrative Provisions
TITLE II--IMPROVING VOTER INFORMATION
TITLE III--RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION
TITLE IV--MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS
SEC. 101. FINDINGS AND DECLARATIONS.
(a) Undermining of Democracy by Campaign Contributions From Private Sources- The Senate finds and declares that the current system of privately financed campaigns for election to the United States Senate has the capacity, and is often perceived by the public, to undermine democracy in the United States by--CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
(1) creating a culture that fosters actual or perceived conflicts of interest by encouraging Senators to accept large campaign contributions from private interests that are directly affected by Federal legislation;CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
(2) diminishing or appearing to diminish Senators’ accountability to constituents by compelling legislators to be accountable to the major contributors who finance their election campaigns;CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
(b) Enhancement of Democracy by Providing Allocations From the Fair Elections Fund- The Senate finds and declares that providing the option of the replacement of large private campaign contributions with allocations from the Fair Elections Fund for all primary, runoff, and general elections to the Senate would enhance American democracy by--CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
(1) reducing the actual or perceived conflicts of interest created by fully private financing of the election campaigns of public officials and restoring public confidence in the integrity and fairness of the electoral and legislative processes through a program which allows participating candidates to adhere to substantially lower contribution limits for contributors with an assurance that there will be sufficient funds for such candidates to run viable electoral campaigns;CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
(2) increasing the public’s confidence in the accountability of Senators to the constituents who elect them, which derives from the program’s qualifying criteria to participate in the voluntary program and the conclusions that constituents may draw regarding candidates who qualify and participate in the program;CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
(3) helping to reduce the ability to make large campaign contributions as a determinant of a citizen’s influence within the political process by facilitating the expression of support by voters at every level of wealth, encouraging political participation, and incentivizing participation on the part of Senators through the matching of small dollar contributions;CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
(4) potentially saving taxpayers billions of dollars that may be (or that are perceived to be) currently allocated based upon legislative and regulatory agendas skewed by the influence of campaign contributions;CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
SEC. 102. ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS AND BENEFITS OF FAIR ELECTIONS FINANCING OF SENATE ELECTION CAMPAIGNS.
‘SEC. 501. DEFINITIONS.
‘(1) ALLOCATION FROM THE FUND- The term ‘allocation from the Fund’ means an allocation of money from the Fair Elections Fund to a participating candidate pursuant to section 522.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(B) in the case of a State that does not hold a primary election, the date prescribed by State law as the last day to qualify for a position on the general election ballot.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(7) MATCHING CONTRIBUTION- The term ‘matching contribution’ means a matching payment provided to a participating candidate for qualified small dollar contributions, as provided under section 523.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(9) PARTICIPATING CANDIDATE- The term ‘participating candidate’ means a candidate for Senator who is certified under section 515 as being eligible to receive an allocation from the Fund.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(11) QUALIFIED SMALL DOLLAR CONTRIBUTION- The term ‘qualified small dollar contribution’ means, with respect to a candidate, any contribution (or series of contributions)--CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘SEC. 502. FAIR ELECTIONS FUND.
‘(i) there should be imposed on any payment made to any person (other than a State or local government or a foreign nation) who has contracts with the Government of the United States in excess of $10,000,000 a tax equal to 0.50 percent of amount paid pursuant to such contracts, except that the aggregate tax for any person for any taxable year shall not exceed $500,000; andCommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(c) Investment- The Commission shall invest portions of the Fund in obligations of the United States in the same manner as provided under section 9602(b) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘SEC. 511. ELIGIBILITY.
‘(1) The candidate files with the Commission a statement of intent to seek certification as a participating candidate under this title during the period beginning on the Fair Elections start date and ending on the last day of the Fair Elections qualifying period.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(3) Not later than the last day of the Fair Elections qualifying period, the candidate files with the Commission an affidavit signed by the candidate and the treasurer of the candidate’s principal campaign committee declaring that the candidate--CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(b) General Election- Notwithstanding subsection (a), a candidate shall not be eligible to receive an allocation from the Fund for a general election or a general runoff election unless the candidate’s party nominated the candidate to be placed on the ballot for the general election or the candidate otherwise qualified to be on the ballot under State law.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘SEC. 512. QUALIFYING CONTRIBUTION REQUIREMENT.
‘(A) 10 percent of the amount of the allocation such candidate would be entitled to receive for the primary election under section 522(c)(1) (determined without regard to paragraph (5) thereof) if such candidate were a participating candidate; orCommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(3) shall be acknowledged by a receipt that is sent to the contributor with a copy kept by the candidate for the Commission and a copy kept by the candidate for the election authorities in the State with respect to which the candidate is seeking election.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(c) Verification of Qualifying Contributions- The Commission shall establish procedures for the auditing and verification of qualifying contributions to ensure that such contributions meet the requirements of this section.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘SEC. 513. CONTRIBUTION AND EXPENDITURE REQUIREMENTS.
‘(3) makes no expenditures from personal funds or the funds of any immediate family member (other than funds received through qualified small dollar contributions and qualifying contributions).CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
For purposes of this subsection, a payment made by a political party in coordination with a participating candidate shall not be treated as a contribution to or as an expenditure made by the participating candidate.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(b) Contributions for Leadership PACs, etc- A political committee of a participating candidate which is not an authorized committee of such candidate may accept contributions other than contributions described in subsection (a)(1) from any person if--CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(c) Exception- Notwithstanding subsection (a), a candidate shall not be treated as having failed to meet the requirements of this section if any contributions that are not qualified small dollar contributions, qualifying contributions, or contributions that meet the requirements of subsection (b) and that are accepted before the date the candidate files a statement of intent under section 511(a)(1) are--CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘SEC. 514. DEBATE REQUIREMENT.
‘(1) 1 public debate before the primary election with other participating candidates and other willing candidates from the same party and seeking the same nomination as such candidate; andCommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘SEC. 515. CERTIFICATION.
‘(2) REPAYMENT OF BENEFITS- If certification is revoked under paragraph (1), the candidate shall repay to the Fund an amount equal to the value of benefits received under this title plus interest (at a rate determined by the Commission) on any such amount received.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘SEC. 521. BENEFITS FOR PARTICIPATING CANDIDATES.
‘(b) Restriction on Uses of Allocations From the Fund- Allocations from the Fund received by a participating candidate under sections 522 and matching contributions under section 523 may only be used for campaign-related costs.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(1) IN GENERAL- Not later than the date that is 45 days after an election in which the participating candidate appeared on the ballot, such participating candidate shall remit to the Commission for deposit in the Fund an amount equal to the lesser of--CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(2) EXCEPTION- In the case of a candidate who qualifies to be on the ballot for a primary runoff election, a general election, or a general runoff election, the amounts described in paragraph (1) may be retained by the candidate and used in such subsequent election.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘SEC. 522. ALLOCATIONS FROM THE FUND.
‘(1) in the case of amounts provided under subsection (c)(1), not later than 48 hours after the date on which such candidate is certified as a participating candidate under section 515;CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(3) in the case of a primary runoff election or a general runoff election, not later than 48 hours after the certification of the results of the primary election or the general election, as the case may be.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(b) Method of Payment- The Commission shall distribute funds available to participating candidates under this section through the use of an electronic funds exchange or a debit card.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(1) PRIMARY ELECTION ALLOCATION; INITIAL ALLOCATION- Except as provided in paragraph (5), the Commission shall make an allocation from the Fund for a primary election to a participating candidate in an amount equal to 67 percent of the base amount with respect to such participating candidate.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(2) PRIMARY RUNOFF ELECTION ALLOCATION- The Commission shall make an allocation from the Fund for a primary runoff election to a participating candidate in an amount equal to 25 percent of the amount the participating candidate was eligible to receive under this section for the primary election.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(3) GENERAL ELECTION ALLOCATION- Except as provided in paragraph (5), the Commission shall make an allocation from the Fund for a general election to a participating candidate in an amount equal to the base amount with respect to such candidate.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(4) GENERAL RUNOFF ELECTION ALLOCATION- The Commission shall make an allocation from the Fund for a general runoff election to a participating candidate in an amount equal to 25 percent of the base amount with respect to such candidate.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(A) IN GENERAL- In the case of a primary or general election that is an uncontested election, the Commission shall make an allocation from the Fund to a participating candidate for such election in an amount equal to 25 percent of the allocation which such candidate would be entitled to under this section for such election if this paragraph did not apply.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(B) UNCONTESTED ELECTION DEFINED- For purposes of this subparagraph, an election is uncontested if not more than 1 candidate has campaign funds (including payments from the Fund) in an amount equal to or greater than 10 percent of the allocation a participating candidate would be entitled to receive under this section for such election if this paragraph did not apply.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(A) each dollar amount under paragraph (1)(A) shall be increased by the percent difference between the price index (as defined in section 315(c)(2)(A)) for the 12 months preceding the beginning of such calendar year and the price index for calendar year 2011;CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(B) each dollar amount so increased shall remain in effect for the 2-year period beginning on the first day following the date of the last general election in the year preceding the year in which the amount is increased and ending on the date of the next general election; andCommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘SEC. 523. MATCHING PAYMENTS FOR QUALIFIED SMALL DOLLAR CONTRIBUTIONS.
‘(a) In General- The Commission shall pay to each participating candidate an amount equal to 400 percent of the amount of qualified small dollar contributions received by the candidate from individuals who are residents of the State in which such participating candidate is seeking election after the date on which such candidate is certified under section 515.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(1) 200 percent of the allocation such candidate is entitled to receive for such election under section 522 (determined without regard to subsection (c)(5) thereof); orCommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(1) IN GENERAL- Each participating candidate shall file reports of receipts of qualified small dollar contributions at such times and in such manner as the Commission may by regulations prescribe.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(4) LIMITATION ON REGULATIONS- The Commission may not prescribe any regulations with respect to reporting under this subsection with respect to any election after the date that is 180 days before the date of such election.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(e) Appeals- The Commission shall provide a written explanation with respect to any denial of any payment under this section and shall provide the opportunity for review and reconsideration within 5 business days of such denial.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘SEC. 524. POLITICAL ADVERTISING VOUCHERS.
‘(a) In General- The Commission shall establish and administer a voucher program for the purchase of airtime on broadcasting stations for political advertisements in accordance with the provisions of this section.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(b) Candidates- The Commission shall only disburse vouchers under the program established under subsection (a) to participants certified pursuant to section 515 who have agreed in writing to keep and furnish to the Commission such records, books, and other information as it may require.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(1) EXCLUSIVE USE- Vouchers disbursed by the Commission under this section may be used only for the purchase of broadcast airtime for political advertisements relating to a general election for the office of Senate by the participating candidate to which the vouchers were disbursed, except that--CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(B) a political party may use vouchers only to purchase broadcast airtime for political advertisements for generic party advertising (as defined by the Commission in regulations), to support candidates for State or local office in a general election, or to support participating candidates of the party in a general election for Federal office, but only if it discloses the value of the voucher used as an expenditure under section 315(d).CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(A) IN GENERAL- A participating candidate who receives a voucher under this section may transfer the right to use all or a portion of the value of the voucher to a committee of the political party of which the individual is a candidate in exchange for money in an amount equal to the cash value of the voucher or portion exchanged.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(B) CONTINUATION OF CANDIDATE OBLIGATIONS- The transfer of a voucher, in whole or in part, to a political party committee under this paragraph does not release the candidate from any obligation under the agreement made under subsection (b) or otherwise modify that agreement or its application to that candidate.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(i) the value of the voucher or portion thereof transferred shall be treated as a contribution from the candidate to the committee, and from the committee to the candidate, for purposes of sections 302 and 304;CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(ii) the committee may, in exchange, provide to the candidate only funds subject to the prohibitions, limitations, and reporting requirements of title III of this Act; andCommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(1) VOUCHER- Each voucher disbursed by the Commission under this section shall have a value in dollars, redeemable upon presentation to the Commission, together with such documentation and other information as the Commission may require, for the purchase of broadcast airtime for political advertisements in accordance with this section.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(2) ACCEPTANCE- A broadcasting station shall accept vouchers in payment for the purchase of broadcast airtime for political advertisements in accordance with this section.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(3) REDEMPTION- The Commission shall redeem vouchers accepted by broadcasting stations under paragraph (2) upon presentation, subject to such documentation, verification, accounting, and application requirements as the Commission may impose to ensure the accuracy and integrity of the voucher redemption system.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(A) CANDIDATES- A voucher may only be used to pay for broadcast airtime for political advertisements to be broadcast before midnight on the day before the date of the Federal election in connection with which it was issued and shall be null and void for any other use or purpose.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(B) EXCEPTION FOR POLITICAL PARTY COMMITTEES- A voucher held by a political party committee may be used to pay for broadcast airtime for political advertisements to be broadcast before midnight on December 31st of the odd-numbered year following the year in which the voucher was issued by the Commission.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(2) POLITICAL PARTY- The term ‘political party’ means a major party or a minor party as defined in section 9002(3) or (4) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (
26 U.S.C. 9002 (3)or (4)).CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘SEC. 531. FAIR ELECTIONS OVERSIGHT BOARD.
‘(A) IN GENERAL- The members shall be individuals who are nonpartisan and, by reason of their education, experience, and attainments, exceptionally qualified to perform the duties of members of the Board.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(5) VACANCIES- A vacancy on the Board shall be filled not later than 30 calendar days after the date on which the Board is given notice of the vacancy, in the same manner as the original appointment. The individual appointed to fill the vacancy shall serve only for the unexpired portion of the term for which the individual’s predecessor was appointed.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(A) IN GENERAL- After each general election for Federal office, the Board shall conduct a comprehensive review of the Fair Elections financing program under this title, including--CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(i) QUALIFYING CONTRIBUTIONS AND QUALIFIED SMALL DOLLAR CONTRIBUTIONS- The Board shall consider whether the number and dollar amount of qualifying contributions required and maximum dollar amount for such qualifying contributions and qualified small dollar contributions strikes a balance regarding the importance of voter involvement, the need to assure adequate incentives for participating, and fiscal responsibility, taking into consideration the number of primary and general election participating candidates, the electoral performance of those candidates, program cost, and any other information the Board determines is appropriate.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(ii) REVIEW OF PROGRAM BENEFITS- The Board shall consider whether the totality of the amount of funds allowed to be raised by participating candidates (including through qualifying contributions and small dollar contributions), allocations from the Fund under sections 522, matching contributions under section 523, and vouchers under section 524 are sufficient for voters in each State to learn about the candidates to cast an informed vote, taking into account the historic amount of spending by winning candidates, media costs, primary election dates, and any other information the Board determines is appropriate.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(D) REPORT- Not later than March 30 following any general election for Federal office, the Board shall submit a report to Congress on the review conducted under paragraph (1). Such report shall contain a detailed statement of the findings, conclusions, and recommendations of the Board based on such review.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(1) MEETINGS- The Board may hold such hearings, sit and act at such times and places, take such testimony, and receive such evidence as the Board considers advisable to carry out the purposes of this Act.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(e) Reports- Not later than March 30, 2011, and every 2 years thereafter, the Board shall submit to the Senate Committee on Rules and Administration a report documenting, evaluating, and making recommendations relating to the administrative implementation and enforcement of the provisions of this title.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(A) IN GENERAL- Each member, other than the Chairperson, shall be paid at a rate equal to the daily equivalent of the minimum annual rate of basic pay prescribed for level IV of the Executive Schedule under
section 5315 of title 5, United States Code.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(B) CHAIRPERSON- The Chairperson shall be paid at a rate equal to the daily equivalent of the minimum annual rate of basic pay prescribed for level III of the Executive Schedule under
section 5314 of title 5, United States Code.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(A) DIRECTOR- The Board shall have a staff headed by an Executive Director. The Executive Director shall be paid at a rate equivalent to a rate established for the Senior Executive Service under
section 5382 of title 5, United States Code.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(B) STAFF APPOINTMENT- With the approval of the Chairperson, the Executive Director may appoint such personnel as the Executive Director and the Board determines to be appropriate.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(C) ACTUARIAL EXPERTS AND CONSULTANTS- With the approval of the Chairperson, the Executive Director may procure temporary and intermittent services under
section 3109(b) of title 5, United States Code.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(D) DETAIL OF GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES- Upon the request of the Chairperson, the head of any Federal agency may detail, without reimbursement, any of the personnel of such agency to the Board to assist in carrying out the duties of the Board. Any such detail shall not interrupt or otherwise affect the civil service status or privileges of the Federal employee.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(E) OTHER RESOURCES- The Board shall have reasonable access to materials, resources, statistical data, and other information from the Library of Congress and other agencies of the executive and legislative branches of the Federal Government. The Chairperson of the Board shall make requests for such access in writing when necessary.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘SEC. 532. ADMINISTRATION PROVISIONS.
‘SEC. 533. VIOLATIONS AND PENALTIES.
‘(a) Civil Penalty for Violation of Contribution and Expenditure Requirements- If a candidate who has been certified as a participating candidate under section 515(a) accepts a contribution or makes an expenditure that is prohibited under section 513, the Commission shall assess a civil penalty against the candidate in an amount that is not more than 3 times the amount of the contribution or expenditure. Any amounts collected under this subsection shall be deposited into the Fund.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(1) IN GENERAL- If the Commission determines that any benefit made available to a participating candidate under this title was not used as provided for in this title or that a participating candidate has violated any of the dates for remission of funds contained in this title, the Commission shall so notify the candidate and the candidate shall pay to the Fund an amount equal to--CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(2) OTHER ACTION NOT PRECLUDED- Any action by the Commission in accordance with this subsection shall not preclude enforcement proceedings by the Commission in accordance with section 309(a), including a referral by the Commission to the Attorney General in the case of an apparent knowing and willful violation of this title.’.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
SEC. 103. PROHIBITION ON JOINT FUNDRAISING COMMITTEES.
SEC. 104. LIMITATION ON COORDINATED EXPENDITURES BY POLITICAL PARTY COMMITTEES WITH PARTICIPATING CANDIDATES.
(b) Conforming Amendment- Subparagraph (B) of section 315(d)(3) of such Act, as redesignated by subsection (a), is amended by inserting ‘who is not a participating candidate (as so defined)’ after ‘office of Senator’.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
SEC. 201. BROADCASTS RELATING TO ALL SENATE CANDIDATES.
(1) by striking ‘to such office’ in paragraph (1) and inserting ‘to such office, or by a national committee of a political party on behalf of such candidate in connection with such campaign,’; andCommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(1) IN GENERAL- Except as provided in paragraph (2), and notwithstanding the requirements of subsection (b)(1)(A), a licensee shall not preempt the use of a broadcasting station by a legally qualified candidate for Senate who has purchased and paid for such use.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(2) CIRCUMSTANCES BEYOND CONTROL OF LICENSEE- If a program to be broadcast by a broadcasting station is preempted because of circumstances beyond the control of the station, any candidate or party advertising spot scheduled to be broadcast during that program shall be treated in the same fashion as a comparable commercial advertising spot.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
‘(e) Audits- During the 30-day period preceding a primary election and the 60-day period preceding a general election, the Commission shall conduct such audits as it deems necessary to ensure that each broadcaster to which this section applies is allocating television broadcast advertising time in accordance with this section and section 312.’.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
(3) by striking ‘his candidacy’ and inserting ‘the candidacy of the candidate, under the same terms, conditions, and business practices as apply to the most favored advertiser of the licensee’.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
SEC. 202. BROADCAST RATES FOR PARTICIPATING CANDIDATES.
‘(3) PARTICIPATING CANDIDATES- In the case of a participating candidate (as defined under section 501(9) of the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971), the charges made for the use of any broadcasting station for a television broadcast shall not exceed 80 percent of the lowest charge described in paragraph (1)(A) during--CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
SEC. 203. FCC TO PRESCRIBE STANDARDIZED FORM FOR REPORTING CANDIDATE CAMPAIGN ADS.
(a) In General- Within 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the Federal Communications Commission shall initiate a rulemaking proceeding to establish a standardized form to be used by broadcasting stations, as defined in section 315(f)(1) of the Communications Act of 1934 (
(b) Contents- The form prescribed by the Commission under subsection (a) shall require, broadcasting stations to report to the Commission and to the Federal Election Commission, at a minimum--CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
(3) the name of the candidate who purchased the advertising time, or on whose behalf the advertising time was purchased, and the Federal elective office for which he or she is a candidate;CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
(c) Internet Access- In its rulemaking under subsection (a), the Commission shall require any broadcasting station required to file a report under this section that maintains an Internet website to make available a link to such reports on that website.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
SEC. 301. PETITION FOR CERTIORARI.
Section 307(a)(6) of the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 (
SEC. 302. FILING BY SENATE CANDIDATES WITH COMMISSION.
SEC. 303. ELECTRONIC FILING OF FEC REPORTS.
(1) in subparagraph (A), by striking ‘under this Act--’ and all that follows and inserting ‘under this Act shall be required to maintain and file such designation, statement, or report in electronic form accessible by computers.’;CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
SEC. 401. SEVERABILITY.
If any provision of this Act or amendment made by this Act, or the application of a provision or amendment to any person or circumstance, is held to be unconstitutional, the remainder of this Act and amendments made by this Act, and the application of the provisions and amendment to any person or circumstance, shall not be affected by the holding.CommentsClose CommentsPermalink
SEC. 402. EFFECTIVE DATE.
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