Barack Obama

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Barack Hussein Obama, Jr., a Democrat, is President of the United States. He was the only African-American currently serving in the U.S. Senate, the fifth in U.S. history and the third since Reconstruction. He was elected President of the United States on November 4, 2008, after winning the Democratic Party nomination. On November 4,2008 he was elected to the Presidency along with Joe Biden, becoming the first African American President of the U.S. On November 16, 2008, he resigned from his seat in the U.S. Senate. On January 20th, 2009 he became the 44th President of the United States of America.



Barack Obama was born August 4, 1961 in Honolulu, Hawaii.[citation needed] Obama studied for two years at Occidental College, before transferring to Columbia University. There he majored in political science, with a specialization in international relations. Upon graduation, he worked for a year at newsletter publisher Business International (now part of The Economist Group), and moved to Chicago, where he was a community organizer in the Altgeld Gardens housing project on the city's South Side. It was during his time spent here that Obama joined the Trinity United Church of Christ.[1]

He left Chicago to study law at Harvard University, where he was elected the first black president of the Harvard Law Review. He graduated magna cum laude. After law school, he returned to Chicago and organized an aggressive voter registration effort that registered over 100,000 voters and aided in the election of President Bill Clinton and Senator Carol Moseley Braun, the first African-American woman ever elected to the U.S. Senate. Soon after, he joined a local civil rights law firm, and he became a Senior Lecturer at the University of Chicago.[2]

Political career

In 1995, Barack Obama accepted the nomination and ran as a candidate of a Marxist political party called the New Party. By 1996, the New Party had solidified its ties with ACORN, unions, and the left so much so that even the New York Times referred to it as "leftist." The Chicago Democratic Socialists of America were quite pleased in 1996 with the New Party's success including the election of "Barack Obama, victor in the 13th State Senate District, [who] encouraged [New Party members] to join in his task forces on Voter Education and Voter Registration".[3]

In 1996, Barack Obama was elected to the Illinois State Senate from the south side neighborhood of Hyde Park, in Chicago. He served as chairman of the Public Health and Welfare Committee when the Democrats regained control of the chamber. Regarded as a staunch liberal, ACORN defended Obama's political views and suggested that he is "respected ... as a bipartisan dealmaker," during his tenure in the legislature. Obama helped to author a state Earned Income Tax Credit that provided benefits to the working poor. He also worked for legislation that would cover residents who could not afford health insurance. He successfully helped pass bills to increase funding for AIDS prevention and care programs. Obama also passed bills that put limits on racial profiling and put cameras in police interrogation rooms. [2]

In 2000, he ran unsuccessfully in the Democratic primary for Illinois' 1st Congressional district against incumbent Bobby Rush. Rush received 61% of the vote, while Obama received 30%.[3]

Obama was chosen to deliver a keynote address at the 2004 Democratic National Convention in Boston, Massachusetts.

The April 18 2005 issue of TIME magazine listed the 100 most influential people in the world. Obama was included on the list under the section of 'Leaders and Revolutionaries' for his high-profile entrance to federal politics and his popularity within the Democratic Party. [4] British journal the New Statesman listed Obama as one of 10 people who will change the world in its October 2005 edition.

2004 Senate Race

In 2004, Obama ran for the U.S. Senate seat to be vacated by Sen. Peter Fitzgerald. Obama squared off against Republican Jack Ryan, who ultimately had to drop out of the race due to sensationalistic scandal. Alan Keyes was chosen as the new GOP candidate. Keyes had gained much attention as a conservative firebrand in his unsuccessful presidential campaigns in 1996 and 2000. A Marylander, Keyes had established legal residency in Illinois with the nomination, the only requirement to run for office. The Chicago Tribune sarcastically greeted Keyes by editorializing: "Mr. Keyes may have noticed a large body of water as he flew into O'Hare. That is called Lake Michigan."

After a campaign in which Keyes called Obama's position on abortion, "the slave-holder's position", accused gays and lesbians of being "selfish hedonists", and claimed that Jesus would not vote for his opponent, Obama won handily in the general election, receiving 70% of the popular vote to Keyes's 27%.

First moves as a senator

Obama was sworn in on January 4, 2005. He ranked 99th out of 100 Senators in terms of official seniority (greater seniority brings greater privileges in the Senate).

Obama's first action in the Senate was to decline to be the Senate co-sponsor of a move to question Ohio's Electoral College votes following the 2004 presidential election. He then voted against the resolution. [5]

Obama came to the Senate with a plan that resembled the career of another high-profile Senator's first term, Hillary Clinton. Obama's "Plan" called for him to focus his energies on his home state, and in spite of overtures from more liberal activists, to stay out of the spotlight. In the first few months Obama held 39 town hall meetings. However, the devastation of Hurricane Katrina and the picture of class and race that it exposed caused Obama to step into the national spotlight sooner than he expected. He said of his first year, "I could have been much more quiet this year than I have been and gotten away with it ... People would have explained it as, 'He is taking the Hillary model.'"[6]

2008 presidential race

Obama announced on January 16, 2007 that he would "create a presidential exploratory committee" as the first step towards his potential candidacy for the 2008 presidential election [7]

On February 10, 2007, he announced in Springfield, Illinois that he would indeed seek the presidency in 2008. [4]

Also in February 2007, Dan Shapiro announced that he would become Obama's political advisor/strategist. [8] Shapiro was a long-time political operative on Capitol Hill, and was previously an advisor to Sen. Bill Nelson (D-Fla.). The appointment of Shapiro coincided with Obama's desire to deliver several speeches (including at the March 2007 AIPAC annual conference) to stress his devotion to Israel.

Shmuel Rosner described his view of the events in his Haaretz blog: "Oh, let's just say it: Jewish voters are major donors to the Democratic Party and its nominees." [9] Worth noting is that Lee Rosenberg, AIPAC's treasurer, is also "a backer, and a member of Obama's finance committee."[10] On July 11, 2007, the Obama campaign appointed Eric Lynn as its "liaison to Jewish Community" and advisor on Middle East issues.[11]

Resignation from Senate

On November 16, 2008, President-Elect Obama resigned his seat in the United States Senate. Illinois Gov. Rod Blagojevich, a Democrat, will appoint a replacement.[12]

Record, money and politics, and controversies

This section contains links to – and feeds from – money in politics databases. For specific controversies, see this article's record and controversies section.

Congressional scorecards
Click through the score to see the records of other members of Congress and full descriptions of the individual votes.

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Organization 2007 Scorecard
Score - Agree ratio
2008 Scorecard
Score - Agree ratio
American Civil Liberties Union not avail. not avail.
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Family Research Council not avail. not avail.
Information Technology Industry Council not avail. not avail.
League of Conservation Voters not avail. not avail.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People not avail. not avail.
U.S. Chamber of Commerce not avail. not avail.

Education policy

Summary (how summaries work)
Obama received an "A" or 100% rating in 2005, 2006 and 2007 from the National Education Association.
Main article: Barack Obama/Education Policy

Elections and government policy

Summary (how summaries work)
Obama has been very active on ethics, election and campaign finance reform since he joined Congress.
Main article: Barack Obama/Elections and Government Policy

Economic policy

Summary (how summaries work)
Obama was a strong advocate of federal funds to rebuild New Orleans and the Gulf Coast after Hurricane Katrina. He threatened to call hearings on what he called the slow reconstruction response of the Bush administration. Additional Economic Policies continue to be inserted within campaign announcements within key swing states. Obama has included policy ideas regarding the creation of 5 million green energy jobs within during his first term. CBS News indicated that the idea was initially presented by Senator Clinton.
Main article: Barack Obama/Economic Policy

National security and foreign policy

Summary (how summaries work)
Iraq Barack Obama opposed the Iraq War even before it began in 2002, though he hedged that opposition during the 2004 election, when the Democratic ticket had voted for the war. In 2007, Obama introduced a bill to remove most troops from Iraq within 16 months, a position he continues to hold, though an advisor has referred to this as a "best case scenario." Obama has a mixed record on Democratic attempts to end the war by defunding it - he has spoken against the tactic but also voted at least once against a bill containing further funding. While publicly opposed to the war in Iraq, Iraqi Foreign Minister Hoshyar Zebari claimed that Barack Obama tried to persuade Iraqi leaders to stall a troop withdrawal. According to Zenari, Obama sought in July of 2008 to delay an agreement until after a new administration was established in Washington. Veterans and soldiers conditions In the wake of the Walter Reed scandal, Obama introduced legislation increasing standards of care and oversight of VA programs. Terrorism Barack Obama advocates a system of government that provides terrorists with maximum protection, while at the same time prosecuting Navy Seals for capturing a Most-Wanted terrorist.[5] Obama wants to put CIA agents on trial while giving terrorists Miranda rights. Darfur Obama has called on the Bush administration to support a UN or NATO force in Darfur, increase pressure on Sudan to share power in Darfur, put pressure on nations supporting Sudan, and impose sanctions on Sudan.
Main article: Barack Obama/National Security and Foreign Policy

Energy and environment issues

Summary (how summaries work)
Energy issues In 2006 Obama called for a deal with U.S. auto makers to pick up 10% of their $6.7 billion in retiree health costs in exchange for bringing more fuel-efficient vehicles to market. He also criticized the Bush administration for what he called a failure to back up with policies its call for "energy independence." In 2007, activists protesting what they called Obama's lack of a clear position on nuclear waste disposal say they were forced to leave one of his presidential rallies.
Main article: Barack Obama/Energy and Environment Policy

Labor, immigration and retirement policy

Summary (how summaries work)
Minimum wage In 2006, Obama sponsored a bill that would limit congressional raises to the same rate as increases in the federal minimum wage.
Main article: Barack Obama/Labor, Immigration and Retirement Policy

Rights, liberties and courts issues

Summary (how summaries work)
* Senator Obama supported the interests of the American Civil Liberties Union 80% in 2007 and 83% in 2005-2006. * Senator Obama supported the interests of the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights 85% in 2007, 93% in 2006 and 94% in 2005. * Senator Obama supported the interests of the Americans United for the Separation of Church and State 100% in 2006. * Senator Obama supported the interests of the Association of Community Organization for Reform Now (ACORN) 100% in 2006. * Senator Obama supported the interests of the Human Rights Campaign 89% in 2005-2006. * Senator Obama supported the interests of the Iranian American Political Action Committee 100% in 2005-2006. * Senator Obama supported the interests of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) 100% in 2005-2006. * Senator Obama supported the interests of the National Council of La Raza 100% in 2005. * Senator Obama supported the interests of the Arab American Institute 80% in 2007.
Main article: Barack Obama/Rights, Liberties and Courts Policy

Food and agriculture

Summary (how summaries work)
* Senator Obama supported the interests of the National Association of Wheat Growers 47% in 2007 and 100% in 2005-2006. * Senator Obama supported the interests of the National Council of Agricultural Employers 20% in 2007 and 66% in 2006. * Senator Obama supported the interests of the American Farm Bureau Federation 35% in 2005-2006. * Senator Obama supported the interests of the National Farmers Union 100% in 2005-2006.
Main article: Barack Obama/Food and Agriculture Policy

Health policy

Summary (how summaries work)
* Senator Obama supported the interests of the Alliance For Headache Disorders Advocacy 0% in 2007. * Senator Obama supported the interests of the American Academy of Family Physicians 100% in 2007. * Senator Obama supported the interests of the Academy of General Dentistry 50% in 2006. * Senator Obama supported the interests of the American Public Health Association 100% in 2006 and 80% in 2005. * Senator Obama supported the interests of the American Academy of Emergency Medicine 100% in 2005-2006. * Senator Obama supported the interests of the American Nurses Association 100% in 2005-2006. * Senator Obama supported the interests of the National Breast Cancer Coalition 60% in 2005-2006. * Senator Obama supported the interests of the St. Joseph Health System 75% of the time in 2005-2006.
Main article: Barack Obama/Health Policy

Tobacco control policy

Summary (how summaries work)
*2005: Obama voted to create the "Display of Tobacco Products Act" which makes it unlawful to sell, offer for sale, give away, or display tobacco products for sale at any location where the consumer can acquire those products through self-service. It also requires tobacco products to be displayed from behind a sales or service counter so that consumers cannot access tobacco products without assistance by an employee. *2004: Obama voted to restrict the display of tobacco advertisements. *2003: Obama co-sponsored a bill to use money from the Tobacco Settlement Recover Fund for comprehensive tobacco use prevention and reductions program to be administered by the Department of Health. *2003: Obama sponsored a bill to make illegal alcoholic cigarette wrapping paper. 2003: Obama voted to prohibit cigarette distribution/sales within 1000 feet of a school. *2003: Obama sponsored a bill to increase the minimum age to buy tobacco to 19 years. *2002: Obama supported an Increase In the Illinois cigarette tax with revenues used to boost state funding. *2002: Obama voted to allow employees of the Department of Revenue to arrest any person violating the Tobacco Products Tax Act of 1995. *2001: Obama sponsored a bill prohibiting distribution of bidis (a type of cheap Indian cigarette made unprocessed tobacco wrapped in leaves). *2001: Obama voted for a bill that taxed snuff (powdered tobacco sniffed up the nose instead of smoked). *2001: Obama sponsored a bill to tax out-of-state tobacco distributors when they sell tobacco products to retailers and consumers in Illinois. *2000: Obama sponsored a bill to ban the sale of bidi cigarettes.Clifford E. Douglas, Esq., Executive Director, University of Michigan Tobacco Research Network Senator Barack Obama's Tobacco Control History, compiled March 8, 2008
Main article: Barack Obama/Tobacco Control Policy

Communications, science and intellectual property

Summary (how summaries work)
Obama supports network neutrality legislation.
Main article: Barack Obama/Communications, Science and Intellectual Property

Infrastructure and Transportation Policy

Summary (how summaries work)
* Senator Obama supported the interests of the American Road and Transportation Builders Association 100% in 2005-2006.
Main article: Barack Obama/Infrastructure and Transportation Policy

Social policy

Summary (how summaries work)
* Senator Obama supported the interests of the Children's Defense Fund 60% in 2007, 100% in 2006 and 100% in 2005. * Senator Obama supported the interests of the Family Research Council 0% in 2007 and 0% in 2006. * Senator Obama supported the interests of the American Family Association 0% in 2005-2006.
Main article: Barack Obama/Social Policy

Misc. controversies

Summary (how summaries work)
2005 investments In 2007, it was reported that Obama had invested more than $50,000 in two companies whose major investors were some of his largest political donors. In 2005, Obama had pushed for more funding for avian flu, where one company had interests. The other company's principal backers included four friends and donors who had raised over $150,000 for his political committees. However, the latter company was invested in through a blind trust and a spokesman said that when Obama learned of the investments in late 2005 he sold both at a $13,000 loss. Civilian National Security Force On July 2nd, in Colorado Springs, Obama gave a speech where he called for a "civilian national security force" with as much power and funding as the U.S. military.
Main article: Barack Obama/Controversies

Record and controversies

Born Alive Opposition

See also Obama born alive controversy

The most notable and widespread example of Obama's lying involves the Born Alive Infant Protection Act. From 2004-2008, Obama lied repeatedly about not voting against a bill identical to the federal bill while he was an Illinois state senator. Following a CNN expose[6][7] and documentation released by the NRLC[8], Obama's campaign conceded he "misspoke" but produced new lies that he has since been using, that Illinois law was already sufficient to protect newborn children.[9] However, his comments contradict what he stated in the Illinois State Senate transcripts:

"Senator O'Malley, the testimony during the committee indicated that one of the key concerns was - is that there was a method of abortion, an induced abortion, where the -- the fetus or child, as - as some might describe it, is still temporarily alive outside the womb. And one of the concerns that came out in the testimony was the fact that they were not being properly cared for during that brief period of time that they were still living. Is that correct?" ... "Number one, whenever we define a previable fetus as a person that is protected by the equal protection clause or the other elements in the Constitution, what we're really saying is, in fact, that they are persons that are entitled to the kinds of protections that would be provided to a - a child, a nine-month-old -- child that was delivered to term. That determination then, essentially, if it was accepted by a court, would forbid abortions to take place. I mean, it - it would essentially bar abortions, because the equal protection clause does not allow somebody to kill a child, then this would be an antiabortion statute. For that purpose, I think it would probably be found unconstitutional. The second reason that it would probably befound unconstitutional is that this essentially says that a doctor is required to provide treatment to a previable child, or fetus, however way you want to describe it. Viability is the line that has been drawn by the Supreme Court to determine whether or not an abortion can or cannot take place. And if we're placing a burden on the doctor that says you have to keep alive even a previable child as long as possible and give them as much medical attention as - as is necessary to try to keep that child alive, then we're probably crossing the line in terms of unconstitutionality."

The issue was brought up by Obama's opponents in 2004 (Alan Keyes), 2008 (Hillary Clinton, John McCain, and Sarah Palin), and 2012 (Newt Gingrich and Rick Santorum).

2003 Emil Jones Deal

When Illinois' U.S. Senator Peter Fitzgerald announced he would be retiring in April 2003, Obama jumped at the opportunity, declaring that he would be a candidate for the U.S. Senate in 2004.[13] To boost his chances at reaching the U.S. Congress in the 2004 elections, in 2003 Barack Obama approached the newly crowned head of the Illinois Senate, Emil Jones Jr., with a proposal. According to Jones, who Obama has since called his "godfather"[14] the conversation went as follows:

"After I was elected president, in 2003, he came to see me, a couple months later. And he said to me, he said, ‘You’re the senate president now, and with that, you have a lot of pow-er.’  And I told Barack, ‘You think I got a lot of pow-er now?,’ and he said, ‘Yeah, you got a lot of pow-er.’ And I said, ‘What kind of pow-er do I have?’ He said, ‘You have the pow-er to make a United States sen-a-tor!’  I said to Barack, I said, ‘That sounds good!’ I said, ‘I haven’t even thought of that.’ I said, ‘Do you have someone in mind you think I could make?,’ and he said, ‘Yeah. Me.’ "[15]

Because of the deal, Obama's entire Illinois Senate legislative record was, as longtime Obama reporter Todd Spivak put it, built in a single year. During his 7th and final year in the Illinois Senate, Obama sponsored an incredible 26 bills into law, including many he now points to when criticized as inexperienced - as CNN's Suzanne Malveaux observed, "With help from on high, Obama got his name on hundreds of bills that he pushed through."[16] and MSNBC.[17] Jones not only had Obama craft legislation addressing daily tragedies to raise his political profile[18], he also appointed Obama head of almost all high-profile legislation in the Illinois Senate, angering other state legislators with more seniority who'd spent years supporting the bills.[19] Illinois State Senator Rickey Hendon, the original sponsor of the famous racial profiling bill requiring videotaped confessions in police interrogations, complained bitterly about Jones' decision.[16][20] Jones' influence had a major impact on Obama's chances in the 2004 elections, preventing major political players from backing Obama's opponents. To quote Emil Jones,

"He knew if he had me in the run for the Senate, it would put a block on the current mayor. The current mayor and the father of the controller, which was Dan Hynes, they were roommates in Springfield when the mayor was a state senator, so they had a relationship. Another big financial backer for the governor was Blair Hull. Barack knew if he had me it would checkmate the governor, ’cause the governor couldn’t come out and go with Blair Hull, ’cause the governor needs me. Same with the mayor. So he had analyzed and figured all of that out. He knew I could help him with labor support. And I could put a checkmate on some of the local politicians that didn’t know him, but they couldn’t really go against me." -Emil Jones[21]

1996 Knocking Opponents Off the Ballot

See also Obama 1996 Election Controversy

Obama in 1996 used a team of lawyers, including fellow Harvard Law School graduate Thomas Johnson, to challenge his opponent's petition signatures on technicalities after the filing deadline had passed. Such tactics are legal and frequently used in Chicago; in 2006 they eliminated 67 of the 245 aldermanic candidates;[22] yet nevertheless led to the term "hardball" by the New York Timesand "cutthroat" by David Mendel as reported by both CNN[23] and MSNBC.[24] The Chicago Tribune declared Obama had mastered "the bare-knuckle arts of Chicago electoral politics", noting "The man now running for president on a message of giving a voice to the voiceless first entered public office not by leveling the playing field, but by clearing it." As one of Obama's four opponents, eliminated through his ballot challenges, would put it:

"Why say you're for a new tomorrow, then do old-style Chicago politics to remove legitimate candidates? He talks about honor and democracy, but what honor is there in getting rid of every other candidate so you can run scot-free? Why not let the people decide?"
-Gha-is Askia, 1996 Illinois Senate candidate[25]

Mark Ewell, another candidate, filed 1,286 signatures, and Obama's challenges left him 86 short of the minimum requirement (757).[26]) If names were printed instead of signed in cursive, they were declared invalid. If they were good but the person registering the signatures wasn't a registered voter (e.g. underage) they were invalid.[27] Thanks to his lawyers, Obama would win the election without a single other candidate on the ballot.


For a more detailed treatment, see ACORN scandals.

In the weeks leading up to the 2008 Presidential election, MSNBC reported the FBI was looking into ACORN voter fraud in several states.[10] Obama's staff worked to delay investigations into Obama's former employer.[11] In this way, hundreds of thousands, if not many more, votes may have been overcounted. Documents released by Judicial Watch on March 11, 2010 reference serious allegations of corruption and voter registration fraud by the Association of Community Organizations for Reform, as well as the Obama administration’s decision to shut down a criminal investigation into these matters.[28]

ACORN received a congressional ban on funding for various illegal activities, including video evidence of ACORN staffers providing practical advice on how to evade taxes and conceal underage prostitution. However, in spite of a congressional ban on funding and the activist groups ties to illegal prostitution, tax evasion and voter fraud, President Obama quietly moved behind the scenes to restore full funding to the radical group ACORN, which was his former employer and legal client.[12]

Marxist New Party

In 1995, Obama accepted the nomination and ran as a candidate of the openly Marxist New Party. For a more detailed treatment, see Obama's terrorist and communist associations.

Education Propaganda

Ethical issues over candidate Obama's infiltration of the education system to spread propaganda arose following an incident at a Wisconsin public school. The public school was caught pushing Barack Obama's memoir Dreams from my Father, under the claim the instructions were to teach the students about "literature."[13] Since then, allegations of "Obamaganda," used to describe education propaganda praising Obama, have been reported across the United States.[14][15]

In response to the severity of the issue, the Texas State Board of Education has endorsed new state standards for teaching history and social studies that reflect a Conservative point of view, according to news reports out of Austin.[16] It tosses out liberal lies like overuse of the word "democratic" in references to the form of U.S. government and replaced it with "constitutional republic," and removes myths about America being founded on "religious freedom." Negative references to the "free market" are being replaced with factual citations that reflect true American history.[17]

Civilian National Security Force

On July 2nd, in Colorado Springs, Obama gave a speech where he called for the Service Employees International Union, his former employer, to become a "civilian national security force" with as much power and funding as the U.S. military. The SEIU is a union that Barack_Obama has made a pledge to help give them more power and strength, and to eventually help him "paint the nation purple."[29][30][31]

57 States controversy

During Obama's campaign through Oregon, Senator Obama was quoted as saying he had visited 57 states, not including Hawaii and Alaska. [32]

"It is wonderful to be back in Oregon," Obama said. "Over the last 15 months, we’ve traveled to every corner of the United States. I’ve now been in 57 states? I think one left to go. Alaska and Hawaii, I was not allowed to go to even though I really wanted to visit, but my staff would not justify it."

Special Olympics

Candidate Obama cultivated an image of sportsmanship and competition; as President, Obama ridiculed disabled people who compete in the Special Olympics. The comments "set us back decades," according to the program's director.[33](Video)

Committees and Affiliations

Committee assignments in the 110th Congress (2007-2009)

Committee assignments in the 109th Congress (2005-2006)

Coalitions and Caucuses

Boards and other Affiliations

More Background Data


Transition office contacts



Barack Obama posts on Twitter at

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Articles and Resources

See also


Articles about Barack Obama

By Barack Obama

Articles by Barack Obama

Interviews and Speeches

Published Works by Barack Obama

Local blogs and discussion sites

Related Congresspedia/SourceWatch Resources


  1. Barb Powell, "Exclusive: UCC member Sen. Barack Obama discusses faith and politics," United Church of Christ News, June 29, 2006.
  2. Benjamin Wallace-Wells, "The Great Black Hope," The Washington Monthly, November, 2004.
  3. Election results for U.S. House seats from Illinois, Federal Elections Commission.
  4. Perry Bacon, Jr., "Barack Obama: The Future of the Democratic Party?" Time, 2005.
  5. Lynn Sweet, " Lawmakers Launch Historic Protest of Electoral Vote," Chicago Sun Times, January 7, 2005.
  6. Lynn Sweet, "Obama Opens New Chapter Chicago Sun-Times, January 22, 2006.
  7. "Obama to form panel to explore presidential bid," CNN, January 16, 2007.
  8. Shmuel Rosner, "Obama will soon make the case that he'll be as strong on Israel as anyone," Haaretz, July 3, 2007.
  9. Shmuel Rosner, "Obama will soon make the case that he'll be as strong on Israel as anyone," Haaretz, July 3, 2007.
  10. Larry Cohler-Esses, "Obama Pivots Away From Dovish Past," Jewish Week, March 9, 2007.
  11. "Obama names liaison to Jewish Community," Barack Obama Report, July 20, 2007.
  12. "Obama resigns Senate seat, thanks Illinois," The Washington Post, November 16, 2008
  13. Associated Press (2009, June 18). "Obama's Political 'Godfather' In Illinois."
  14. Purdum, Todd (2008, March). "Raising Obama." Vanity Fair.
  15. 16.0 16.1 Malveaux, Suzanne (2008, August 20). "Barack Obama Revealed." CNN.
  16. MSNBC (2008, February 20). "Obama Becomes Rising Star Among Democrats."
  17. Associated Press (2009, June 18). "Obama's Political 'Godfather' In Illinois."
  18. Spivak, Todd (2008, February 28). "Barack Obama and Me." Houston Press.
  19. Spivak, Todd (2004, March 25). "In the Black." Illinois Times.
  20. Purdum, Todd (2008, March). "Raising Obama." Vanity Fair.
  21. Jackson, David & Long, Ray (2007, April 4). "Barack Obama: Showing His Bare Knuckles." Chicago Tribune.
  22. Malveaux, Suzanne (2008, August 20). "Barack Obama Revealed." CNN.
  23. MSNBC (2008, February 20). "Obama Becomes Rising Star Among Democrats."
  24. Jackson, David & Long, Ray (2007, April 3). "Obama Knows His Way Around a Ballot." Chicago Tribune.
  25. Spivak, Todd (2008, February 28). "Barack Obama and Me." Houston Press.
  26. Griffin, Drew & Johnston, Kathleen (2008, May 29). "Obama Played Hardball in First Chicago Campaign." CNN.
  27. Tom Fitton. Obama Spiked ACORN Investigation: Judicial Watch Releases FBI Documents,, Mar 11th 2010.
  28. Glenn Beck. Barack Obama's Civilian Army, Fox News, August 27, 2009.
  29. Mike Flynn. Obama’s Shock Troops: SEIU and Political Intimidation in St. Louis,, Nov 6th 2009.
  30. Derek Erwin. Obama's SEIU Shock Troops on Patrol, A 1-In-100 Blogger, February 11, 2010.
  31. Los Angeles Times, [1] Los Angeles Times, May 9, 2008.
  32. Special Olympics chief responds to Obama gaffe, Stacy St Clair, Chicago Tribune, March 20, 2009]

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